Honestly, even living down the road from where problem bears are relocated, i never dealt with bear issues. Why? We burnt our garbage (not an environmentally sound solution!!!), washed plastics, cans, etc before putting it outside to bring to the recycling depot, Or hauled it to the dump regularly, and had dogs around. The only time we ever saw a bear in our yard was when the last dog was old and no longer roaming- a young bear sauntered down the drive, and our old dog and cat (!) warned it off. People were spread out enough that there was no NEED for the bear to pass through our yard, though i occasionally saw bear sign in the woods. When i walked, i usually had the dogs, and chatted with them, or would whistle or have a set of bear bells in higher risk seasons. People in the area hunted and ate bear too, which controlled the population as well.
At work - i have been to many remote sites and have been around all 3 species of Canadian bear. The only one we had bear issues in was one where they had an open dump site instead of an incinerator with tall fences. Even there, the only time i was ever at risk was when i was moving garbage to my truck(bears smelled it, and came into the building because the door was open!!!) or dropping it off at the dump (i accidentally hit a bear that i didnt see in the head with it when i threw it). I carried bear spray in the woods, never used it, did not leave food or garbage in the vehicle, and travelled with another person. We did have one black bear stalk us for a bit, but he seemed more curious than anything, and left when someone honked a horn. I also once walked without noticing within 100 m of a grizzly and her two cubs sleeping in the grass - she was habituated to humans being noisy nuisances but not sources of food due to strict garbage and bear protocols, and didnt even watch me walk past.
For me, the most environmentally sound bear control measures are the prosaic ones - clean your garbage, have a couple large dogs around, be loud so they hear you coming, and eat them when the population gets too large, or if they start becoming problem bears.
(Oh, except for polar bears, which are bloody scary, very smart, and DEFINITELY think of humans as prey. Heard way too many "polar bear lay there for days before attacking" stories to like polar bears).