Judson Carroll

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Recent posts by Judson Carroll



Of this species, we only have one, as well. However, a couple of shrubs are called “Burning Bush”, as well, so it can be confusing, so I find it best to use the common name of Wahoo for this one…Euonymus… besides, it is a fun name!

This tree goes by many names. The English variety is called “Spindle Tree”. Mrs. Grieve attempts to unravel the mystery of the names in her comprehensive, A Modern Herbal, written in the 1930’s:

Spindle Tree

Botanical: Euonymus atropurpureus, Euonymus Europoeus

The Latin name for Spindle is Fusus, and by some of the old writers this plant is called Fusanum and the Fusoria. By the Italians it is still called Fusano. The fruit is given three or four as a dose, as a purgative in rural districts; and the decoction, adding some vinegar, is used as a lotion for mange in horses and cattle. In allusion to the actively irritating properties of the shrub, its name Euonymus is associated with that of Euonyme, the mother of the Furies. In old herbals it is called Skewerwood or prickwood (the latter from its employment as toothpicks), and gatter, gatten, or gadrose. Chaucer, in one of his poems, calls it gaitre.

Prior says:

Gatter is from the Anglo-Saxon words, gad (a goad) and treow (a tree); gatten is made up of gad again and tan (a twig); and gadrise is from gad and hris (a rod).'

The same hardness that fitted it for skewers, spindles, etc., made it useful for the ox-goad.

Turner apparently christened the tree Spindle Tree. He says:

'I coulde never learne an Englishe name for it. The Duche men call it in Netherlande, spilboome, that is, spindel-tree, because they use to make spindels of it in that country, and me thynke it may be as well named in English seying we have no other name. . . . I know no goode propertie that this tree hath, saving only it is good to make spindels and brid of cages (bird-cages).

The variety of Spindle Tree (Euonymus atropurpureus), common in the eastern United States, is known there as Wahoo, Burning Bush, or Indian Arrowwood. This is the kind generally used in medicine.

---Medicinal Action and Uses---Tonic, alterative, cholagogue, laxative and hepatic stimulant.

In small doses, Euonymin stimulates the appetite and the flow of the gastric juice. In larger doses, it is irritant to the intestine and is cathartic. It has slight diuretic and expectorant effects, but its only use is as a purgative in cases of constipation in which the liver is disordered, and for which it is particularly efficacious. It is specially valuable in liver disorders which follow or accompany fever. It is mildly aperient and causes no nausea, at the same time stimulating the liver somewhat freely, and promoting a free flow of bile.

To make the decoction, add an ounce to a pint of water and boil together slowly. A small wineglassful to be given, when cold, for a dose, two or three times a day.

Of the tincture made with spirit from the bark, 5 to 10 drops may be taken in water or on sugar.

Euonymin is generally given in pill form and in combination with other tonics, laxatives, etc.


Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests states:

CELASTRACEAE

DeCand. says an acrid principle has been detected among the species.

BURNINGBUSH; STRAWBERRY TEEE; FISHWOOD; SPINDLE TREE, (Euonymus Aynericanus.’) Rare; grows in swamps; collected in St. John’s Berkeley. N. C. Fl. May.

Griffith’s Med. Bot. 220. Emetic, discutient and anti-syphilitic. It is also thought to be narcotic. The seeds are said to be nauseous, purgative and emetic, and are used in some places to destroy vermin in the hair. The leaves are poisonous to cattle.

WAHOO, (Euonymus atropurpureus.) Possesses properties similar to the above. Dr. Wood, in the 12th Ed. Of the U. S. Disp., slates that Mr. G. W. Carpenter had introduced a bark some twenty years since as a remedy for dropsy, under the name Wahoo, he having obtained a knowledge of its virtues in the Western States. Dr. W. ascertained that it was derived from this plant, which must be distinguished from the Elm of the Southern States, which is also called Wahoo. The bark imparts its virtues to water and alcohol. By analysis of Mr. W. T. Wenzel, it was found to contain a bitter principle, which he named euonymin, asparagin, resin, fixed oil, wax, starch, albumen, glucose, pectin and salts. (Am. J. Ph., Sept., 1862.) Mr. W. P. Clothier found the substance, which is the euonymine of the Eclectics, to purge actively without griping. Dr. Twyman, of Mo., informed Dr. Wood that he had found the bark, as a cathartic, rather to resemble rhubarb than to possess hydragogue properties, and he thought that he had obtained from it good results as an alterative to the hepatic functions. The decoction or infusion is used in dropsy, made in the proportion of an ounce to a pint of water, and given in the dose of a wineglassful several times a day. TJ. S. Disp. See a paper by C A. Santos, upon the Am. Species; Am. J. Pharm. Xx, 80

King’s American Dispensatory, 1898 tells us:

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Euonymus has been in use among physicians for a long time. The bark is tonic, laxative, alterative, diuretic, and expectorant; the seeds are cathartic and emetic. In infusion, syrup, or extract, it has been successfully used in intermittents, dyspepsia, torpid liver, constipation, dropsy, and pulmonary affections. Prof. Locke states” there are but few good stomach tonics, and this agent is one of them.” It stimulates the biliary flow, and has considerable anti-malarial influence, and may be used in intermittents after the chill has been broken with quinine. It stimulates the nutritive processes and improves the appetite. It may be used with advantage in atonic dyspepsia, and in indigestion due to hepatic topor or following malarial fevers. It is a remedy for chronic ague, and the consequent obstinate constipation and gastric debility accompanying or following it. A gin tincture (root ℥j to gin fl℥viij), is not without value in some cases of dropsy, particularly when associated with hepatic and renal inactivity. Dose of the tincture (℥viij to alcohol 76 per cent Oj), from 1 to 4 fluid drachms; of the syrup, from 1 to 2 fluid ounces; of the hydro-alcoholic extract, from 5 to 15 grains; of the powder, from 20 to 30 grains; of specific euonymus, 1 to 30 drops.

Specific Indications and Uses.—Prostration with irritation of the nerve centers; periodical diseases, to supplement the action of quinine; anorexia, indigestion, and constipation, due to hepatic torpor.


Plants for a future gives the following uses for out native Wahoo:

Wahoo was used in various ways by the North American Indians, for example as an eye lotion, as a poultice for facial sores and for gynaecological conditions. In current herbalism it is considered to be a gallbladder remedy with laxative and diuretic properties. The bark, however, is toxic and should only be used under professional supervision, it should not be given to pregnant women or nursing mothers. The stem and root bark is alterative, cardiac, cathartic, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, hepatic, laxative, stimulant and tonic. The root bark is the part normally used, though bark from the stems is sometimes employed as a substitute. In small doses it stimulates the appetite, in larger doses it irritates the intestines. The bark is especially useful in the treatment of biliousness and liver disorders which follow or accompany fevers and for treating various skin disorders such as eczema which could arise from poor liver and gallbladder function. It is also used as a tea in the treatment of malaria, liver congestion, constipation etc. The powdered bark, applied to the scalp, was believed to eliminate dandruff. The bark and the root contain digitoxin and have a digitalis-like effect on the heart. They have been used in the treatment of heart conditions. The bark, which has a sweetish taste, is gathered in the autumn and can be dried for later use. A tea made from the roots is used in cases of uterine prolapse, vomiting of blood, painful urination and stomach-aches. The seed is emetic

The Physician's  desk reference for herbal medicine tells us:

The drug is reported to be a laxative and choleretic. Larger doses have an effect on the heart. Unproven uses: in the past, the drug was used as a cholagogue, laxative, diuretic and tonic, and for dyspepsia. Today it is used in homeopathy. Precautions and adverse reactions: poisoning caused by the berries have been recorded. A fatal dose is said to be 36 berries …. Wahoo root bark and fruit are not recommended for use, as the drug is considered too dangerous.


This article is an excerpt from The Medicinal Trees of the American South, An Herbalist's Guide: by Judson Carroll

His New book is:






Medicinal Shrubs and Woody Vines of The American Southeast An Herbalist's Guide
Read About Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/06/medicinal-shrubs-and-woody-vines-of.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B2T4Y5L6



His other works include:

Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else

Read About Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else: http://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/04/growing-your-survival-herb-garden-for.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09X4LYV9R



The Encyclopedia of Bitter Medicinal Herbs:

southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/03/the-encyclopedia-of-bitter-medicina.html

Available for purchase on Amazon:

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B5MYJ35R



Christian Medicine, History and Practice:

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/01/christian-herbal-medicine-history-and.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: www.amazon.com/dp/B09P7RNCTB



Herbal Medicine for Preppers, Homesteaders and Permaculture People

southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/10/herbal-medicine-for-preppers.html

Also available on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09HMWXL25



Look Up: The Medicinal Trees of the American South, An Herbalist's Guide

http:///www.amazon.com/dp/1005082936



The Herbs and Weeds of Fr. Johannes Künzle:

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/05/announcing-new-book-herbs-and-weeds-of.html



Author: Judson Carroll. Judson Carroll is an Herbalist from the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina.

His weekly articles may be read at judsoncarroll.com

His weekly podcast may be heard at: www.spreaker.com/show/southern-appalachian-herbs

He offers free, weekly herb classes: https://rumble.com/c/c-618325



Disclaimer

The information on this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any disease or condition. Nothing on this site has been evaluated or approved by the FDA. I am not a doctor. The US government does not recognize the practice of herbal medicine and their is no governing body regulating herbalists. Therefore, I'm just a guy who studies herbs. I am not offering any advice. I won't even claim that anything I write is accurate or true! I can tell you what herbs have "traditionally been used for." I can tell you my own experience and if I believe an herb helped me. I cannot, nor would I tell you to do the same. If you use any herb I, or anyone else, mentions you are treating yourself. You take full responsibility for your health. Humans are individuals and no two are identical. What works for me may not work for you. You may have an allergy, sensitivity or underlying condition that no one else shares and you don't even know about. Be careful with your health. By continuing to read my blog you agree to be responsible for yourself, do your own research, make your own choices and not to blame me for anything, ever.
6 hours ago
Woohoo!  My new Nikasu hori-hori knife came today.  I can't wait to break this one in!  It is a knife, a saw, a spade, a measuring device, etc.  Tough and simply perfect!

5 days ago


Cunninghamia lanceolata

This tree is naturalized in my region, and is commonly known as Chinese Fir.

Plants for A Future states:

Medicinal use of Chinese Fir: Antidote, carminative. A decoction of the wood is used in the treatment of varnish poisoning (from species of Rhus), chronic ulcers, hernia etc. An essential oil from the plant is used to treat bruises, pain, rheumatism and wounds. The ash of the bark is used to treat burns, scalds and wounds. A decoction of the cone is used in the treatment of coughs.




Cyrilla racemiflora, Swamp Titi

In stark contrast to the Hawthorn is the Swamp Titi. This is the one and only species of the genus Cyrilla, and its range is limited to the Americas. Here, it grows in the coastal swamps, extending about as far as the piedmont, or center of the state. It is an attractive plant, with white flowers and shiny, evergreen leaves.

The medicinal use of Cyrilla racemiflora is limited but important. The bark is both absorbent and astringent. It may be used as a styptic to stop bleeding.




Diospyros virginiana, common persimmon

Persimmon is found in various forms and places, but this is out native variety. It is quite different from the Asian Persimmons one may find in a grocery store. Our persimmons are an excellent fruit, mild and sugary sweet….when ripe! Ripe persimmons are delicious eaten fresh, out of hand, or baked into a fruit bread or cake. When baked, they taste a bit like sweet potato, with a bit of berry acidity and a mild bitter background that really makes such desserts special. A beer or cider made from Persimmons was very popular in early America, and the fruits of these scrubby trees kept many from starving, especially in the Revolutionary and Civil War.

The American Persimmon is a small tree, about the size of a dogwood. It likes the edges of woods and can often be found around old fields or roadsides. It grows crooked and nobly and is considered almost a weed in our modern ignorance. An unripe Persimmon fruit may be the most puckeringly bitter substance known in nature. Perhaps the reason why native Persimmon is so lowly regarded, is because so many rural children have been tricked into eating the unripe fruit. An unripe persimmon not only puckers the mouth, it buckles the knees, takes away all sense of taste for up to a half hour and is the flavor equivalent of a punch in the mouth.

Persimmons ripen later than any fruit of which I am aware. Traditional lore is that Persimmons should not be harvested until after the first frost. Granted, many will be lost to deer, raccoons and opossums by, that time, but waiting until that kiss of frost does ensure sweet, ripe fruit. Persimmons turn from a powdery pink/orange to a purplish color when ripe. They are then soft, mushy… a texture and taste reminiscent of ripe figs. They will then pull easily from the stems, often falling off as you collect them. I generally eat almost as many as I bring home, just spitting out the seeds. They are perfect on a chilly October afternoon, when the smell of dry hardwood leaves fills the nose.

The secret to cooking with Persimmons is to not only remove all of the seeds, but to mash them through a fruit cone, colander or even a tea strainer or window screen. Persimmons contain little black flecks that even in very ripe fruit, will turn the pulp unbelievably bitter if not removed before cooking. You merely need to mash them through a screen or something similar, to produce a thick, orange fruit pulp, leaving the skins, seeds and black bits behind. Persimmons processed this way make the finest fruit breads, cakes and cookies. They combine very well with pumpkin, sweet potatoes, raisins, dried cranberries… the fruits of the season.

However, the fruit is not the only reason rural Southerners have traditionally seen the Persimmon tree as a major food source… perhaps the main asset of this tree is game. Cooking the game meat with the Persimmons on which it fed is a grand tradition. A cherished southern recipe that was widely beloved just a few generations ago, was “possum” roasted with persimmons and sweet potatoes. Occasionally, one still finds this beloved dish in Appalachia. Unfortunately, many modern people will not eat possum, considering it a “trash animal”. Yes, this ancient animal, a remnant of a time long before people, is an omnivore that will scavenge anything edible it can find. Especially in our modern times, that can include roadkill or raiding garbage cans. But a possum that lives in a clean wilderness environment should not be viewed negatively. That possum will have fed on persimmons, apples and hickory nuts, and will be a gourmet treat for the adventurous and non-arrogant palate. The same is true of raccoons. I know of many African American communities in the rural South, where folks care nothing for turkey at Thanksgiving dinner. They want a big, fat coon that has been feeding on the fruits of the season… and, I’ve known several country boys who make some good holiday spending money illegally selling that very meat to the folks who desire it. It is a joy for them to hunt, and an obsession for the hounds they raise… a wonderful tradition that crosses racial boundaries and should not be prohibited by laws written by those who don’t understand such things. Deer, turkey and bear also enjoy Persimmon. Along with the Hickories and Oaks, Persimmon is a tree any good hunter will scout for game.

King's American Dispensatory, 1898 tells us:

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Tonic and astringent. The bark has been used in intermittents, and both it and the unripe fruit have been beneficial in various forms of disease of the bowels, chronic dysentery, and uterine hemorrhage; used in infusion, syrup, or vinous tincture, in the proportion of 1 ounce of the bruised fruit to 2 fluid ounces of the vehicle, and ½ fluid ounce or more given to adults, and a fluid drachm or more to infants. The infusion may be used as a gargle in ulcerated sore throat. When ripe the fruit is very palatable, and as it matures at a time when fruits are generally departing for the season, the cultivation of the tree would undoubtedly be a valuable accession to our autumnal fruits. A kind of brandy is obtained by distillation of the fermented infusion.

According to Plants for A Future, Persimmon is:

Appetizer, sialagogue. The stem bark is astringent and styptic. The fruit is said to have different properties depending on its stage of ripeness, though it is generally antitussive, astringent, laxative, nutritive and stomachic. The fresh fully ripe fruit is used raw in the treatment of constipation and haemorrhoids and when cooked is used to treat diarrhoea. The dried ripe fruit is used in the treatment of bronchial complaints, whilst when ground into a powder it is used to treat dry coughs. Juice from the unripe fruit is used in the treatment of hypertension. The fruits, picked green and ripened in containers with the leaves, become very sweet and are considered to be antifebrile, antivinous and demulcent. The fruits are also peeled and then exposed to sunlight by day and dew by night. They become encrusted with a white powder and are then considered to be anthelmintic, antihaemorrhagic, antivinous, expectorant, febrifuge and restorative. The peduncle is used to treat coughs and hiccups. The calyx is used to treat hiccups.

Peterson Field Guides Eastern and Central Medicinal Plants tells us:

Inner bark tea highly astringent. In folk use, gargle for sore throats and thrush. Bark tea once used as a folk remedy for stomach aches, heartburn, diarrhea, dysentery, and uterine hemorrhage. The bark tea was used as a wash or poultice for warts and cancers. Fruits edible, but astringent before ripening; Best after frost. Seed oil is suggestive of peanut oil in flavor. Warning: contains tannins; Potentially toxic in large amounts.





This article is an excerpt from The Medicinal Trees of the American South, An Herbalist's Guide: by Judson Carroll

His New book is:






Medicinal Shrubs and Woody Vines of The American Southeast An Herbalist's Guide
Read About Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/06/medicinal-shrubs-and-woody-vines-of.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B2T4Y5L6



His other works include:

Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else

Read About Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else: http://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/04/growing-your-survival-herb-garden-for.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09X4LYV9R



The Encyclopedia of Bitter Medicinal Herbs:

southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/03/the-encyclopedia-of-bitter-medicina.html

Available for purchase on Amazon:

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B5MYJ35R



Christian Medicine, History and Practice:

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/01/christian-herbal-medicine-history-and.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: www.amazon.com/dp/B09P7RNCTB



Herbal Medicine for Preppers, Homesteaders and Permaculture People

southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/10/herbal-medicine-for-preppers.html

Also available on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09HMWXL25



Look Up: The Medicinal Trees of the American South, An Herbalist's Guide

http:///www.amazon.com/dp/1005082936



The Herbs and Weeds of Fr. Johannes Künzle:

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/05/announcing-new-book-herbs-and-weeds-of.html



Author: Judson Carroll. Judson Carroll is an Herbalist from the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina.

His weekly articles may be read at judsoncarroll.com

His weekly podcast may be heard at: www.spreaker.com/show/southern-appalachian-herbs

He offers free, weekly herb classes: https://rumble.com/c/c-618325



Disclaimer

The information on this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any disease or condition. Nothing on this site has been evaluated or approved by the FDA. I am not a doctor. The US government does not recognize the practice of herbal medicine and their is no governing body regulating herbalists. Therefore, I'm just a guy who studies herbs. I am not offering any advice. I won't even claim that anything I write is accurate or true! I can tell you what herbs have "traditionally been used for." I can tell you my own experience and if I believe an herb helped me. I cannot, nor would I tell you to do the same. If you use any herb I, or anyone else, mentions you are treating yourself. You take full responsibility for your health. Humans are individuals and no two are identical. What works for me may not work for you. You may have an allergy, sensitivity or underlying condition that no one else shares and you don't even know about. Be careful with your health. By continuing to read my blog you agree to be responsible for yourself, do your own research, make your own choices and not to blame me for anything, ever.
1 week ago
https://www.spreaker.com/user/13414994/show-92-full

In this episode, I discuss old fashioned exercises you can do daily indoors, that are fun, such as Indian Clubs and tap dancing.  Then, I get into Cinnamon... this now common spice was once an herb more valued than gold.  It was even considered a cure for poisons!




https://www.spreaker.com/user/13414994/show-92-full



Read about my new book, Medicinal Shrubs and Woody Vines of The American Southeast an Herbalist's Guide  

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/06/medicinal-shrubs-and-woody-vines-of.html



Available for purchase on Amazon https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B2T4Y5L6



Visit my Substack and sign up for my free newsletter: https://judsoncarroll.substack.com/



Read about my new other book, Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/04/growing-your-survival-herb-garden-for.html



https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09X4LYV9R



And



The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Bitter Herbs: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/03/the-encyclopedia-of-bitter-medicina.html



Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B5MYJ35R



and



Christian Medicine, History and Practice: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/01/christian-herbal-medicine-history-and.html



Available for purchase on Amazon: www.amazon.com/dp/B09P7RNCTB





Herbal Medicine for Preppers, Homesteaders and Permaculture People: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/10/herbal-medicine-for-preppers.html



Also available on Amazon: www.amazon.com/dp/B09HMWXL25



Podcast: https://www.spreaker.com/show/southern-appalachian-herbs



Blog: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/



Free Video Lessons: https://rumble.com/c/c-618325
1 week ago


…. This is a big one!

There are seventy-eight varieties of Hawthorn used in herbal medicine: Crataegus acclivis, Crataegus aestivalis - Eastern Mayhaw, Crataegus altaica - Altai Mountain Thorn, Crataegus anomala, Crataegus apiifolia - Parsley-Leaved Hawthorn, Crataegus aprica, Crataegus armena, Crataegus arnoldiana, Crataegus atrosanguinea, Crataegus azarolus – Azarole, Crataegus baroussana, Crataegus caesa, Crataegus calpodendron – Pear Hawthorn, Crataegus canadensis, Crataegus canbyi, Crataegus coccinoides - Kansas Hawthorn, Crataegus columbiana - Columbian Hawthorn, Crataegus crus-galli - Cockspur Thorn, Crataegus cuneata – Sanzashi, Crataegus dilatate, Crataegus dispessa, Crataegus douglasii - Black Hawthorn, Crataegus durobrivensis, Crataegus ellwangeriana, Crataegus elongate, Crataegus festiva, Crataegus flabellate, Crataegus flava - Summer Haw, Crataegus gemosa, Crataegus heterophylla, Crataegus holmesiana, Crataegus hupehensis, Crataegus champlainensis, Crataegus chlorosarca, Crataegus chrysocarpa - Fireberry Hawthorn, Crataegus illinoiensis, Crataegus intricate, Crataegus jackii, Crataegus jonesiae, Crataegus laciniata, Crataegus laevigata - Midland Hawthorn, Crataegus lobulata - Red Haw, Crataegus macrosperma - Big-Fruit Hawthorn, Crataegus maximowiczii, Crataegus meyeri, Crataegus missouriensis, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus nigra - Hungarian Hawthorn, Crataegus opaca - Western Mayhaw, Crataegus parvifolia, Crataegus pedicellata - Scarlet Haw, Crataegus pedicellata gloriosa - Scarlet Haw, Crataegus pensylvanica, Crataegus phaenopyrum - Washington Thorn, Crataegus pinnatifida - Chinese Haw, Crataegus pinnatifida major - Chinese Haw, Crataegus pontica, Crataegus pringlei, Crataegus pruinosa - Frosted Hawthorn, Crataegus pubescens – Manzanilla, Crataegus pubescens stipulacea – Manzanilla, Crataegus punctata - Dotted Hawthorn, Crataegus reverchonii - Reverchon's Hawthorn, Crataegus rivularis - River Hawthorn, Crataegus rotundifolia, Crataegus sanguinea, Crataegus schraderiana, Crataegus songorica, Crataegus stipulosa, Crataegus submollis - Quebec Hawthorn, Crataegus subvillosa, Crataegus succulenta, Crataegus szovitskii, Crataegus tanacetifolia - Tansy-Leaved Thorn, Crataegus uniflora, Crataegus x grignonensis

Native to my region are: Crataegus aestivalis (May Hawthorn, Mayhaw), Crataegus alabamensis (Alabama Hawthorn) , Crataegus alleghaniensis (Alleghany Hawthorn), Crataegus aprica (Sunny Hawthorn), Crataegus berberifolia var. berberifolia (Barberry Hawthorn), Crataegus berberifolia var. engelmannii (Barberry Hawthorn), Crataegus boyntonii (Boynton Hawthorn), Crataegus buckleyi (Buckley Hawthorn), Crataegus calpodendron (Pear Hawthorn), Crataegus coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn), Crataegus collina (Chapman's Hill-thorn), Crataegus colonica, Crataegus craytonii (Crayton Hawthorn), Crataegus crus-galli var. crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn), Crataegus crus-galli var. pyracanthifolia, Crataegus dodgei (Dodge Hawthorn), Crataegus flabellata (Fanleaf Hawthorn), Crataegus intricata var. boyntonii (Boynton Hawthorn), Crataegus intricata var. intricata (Entangled Hawthorn), Crataegus intricata var. biltmoreana (Entangled Hawthorn), Crataegus iracunda (Red Hawthorn), Crataegus lassa (Sandhill Hawthorn), Crataegus macrosperma (Bigfruit Hawthorn), Crataegus marshallii (Parsley Hawthorn), Crataegus munda, Crataegus pallens, Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington Hawthorn), Crataegus pruinosa (Frosted Hawthorn), Crataegus punctata (Dotted Hawthorn), Crataegus schuettei (Schuette's Hawthorn), Crataegus senta, Crataegus spathulata (Littlehip Hawthorn), Crataegus succulenta (Fleshy Hawthorn), Crataegus viridis (Green Hawthorn), Crataegus visenda

As you can see, we have a LOT of Hawthorns! Although, these days, Hawthorn is often relegated to being a landscaping plant useful in keeping out intruders, or used for its fruit to make a rustic jam by too few people, Hawthorn is one of the most storied and useful plants used in herbal medicine.

Said to be both the wood that made the staff of Saint Joseph, and the thorns from Which the crown of Jesus was woven, Hawthorn has become a symbol of the Catholic Church. Early Christians decorated with Hawthorn as a type of Christmas tree.

In Culpepper’s time, the Hawthorn was so commonly planted and used that he states:

It is not my intention to trouble you with a description of this tree, which is so well known that it needs none. It is ordinarily but a hedge bush, although being pruned and dressed, it grows to a tree of a reasonable height.

As for the Hawthorn Tree at Glastonbury, which is said to flower yearly on Christmas-day, it rather shews the superstition of those that observe it for the time of its flowering, than any great wonder, since the like may be found in divers other places of this land; as in Whey-street in Romney Marsh, and near unto Nantwich in Cheshire, by a place called White Green, where it flowers about Christmas and May. If the weather be frosty, it flowers not until January, or that the hard weather be over.

Government and virtues. It is a tree of Mars. The seeds in the berries beaten to powder being drank in wine, are held singularly good against the stone, and are good for the dropsy. The distilled water of the flowers stay the lask. The seed cleared from the down, bruised and boiled in wine, and drank, is good for inward tormenting pains. If cloths or sponges be wet in the distilled water, and applied to any place wherein thorns and splinters, or the like, do abide in the flesh, it will notably draw them forth.

And thus you see the thorn gives a medicine for its own pricking, and so doth almost every thing else.


Galen wrote:

The fruit of the Hawthorn tree is very astringent.

The haws or berries of the Hawthorn tree, as Dioscorides writeth, do both stay the lask, the menses, and all other fluxes of blood: some authors write, that the stones beaten to powder, and given to drink are good against the stone.


Dioscorides did, in fact, include Hawthorn in de Materia Medica, but his recommendation must be taken with a grain of salt as he said that Hawthorn consumed by a potential mother would ensure male children.

Mrs. Grieve listed the medicinal value of Hawthorn as:

Cardiac, diuretic, astringent, tonic. Mainly used as a cardiac tonic in organic and functional heart troubles. Both flowers and berries are astringent and useful in decoction to cure sore throats. A useful diuretic in dropsy and kidney troubles.

An Irish Herbal states:

The fruit is dry and astringent. It stops flows of extensive menstruation. The flowers are very good for breaking up stone in the kidneys and bladder.

Plants for A Future states:

The fruits and flowers of hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture. The fruit is anodyne, anticholesterolemic, antidiarrhetic, antidysenteric, astringent, blood tonic, cardiotonic, haemostatic and stomachic. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, stagnation of fatty food, abdominal fullness, retention of lochia, amenorrhoea, postpartum abdominal pain, hypertension and coronary heart disease.

All varieties of hawthorn can be used. It may be harvested twice in a season - fresh, flowing tips, then ripe berries. Hawthorn is recognized as being good for irregularities of the heart. It dilates, strengthens and improves coronary arteries. It is good for over-exertion when we surpass the imitations of our age or fitness. Hawthorn is good for arrhythmia and good for angina. Hawthorn is especially good for the middle aged. Many herbalists believe that Hawthorn may be used as alternative to digitalis, or even used together, so one can use less digitalis.


The Rodale Herb Book states:

Aside from ornamental uses, hawthorn has been valued as a heart tonic, and this value has been increasingly studied in recent years. Promising results have been reported in connection with a variety of heart ailments, including angina pectoris and abnormal heart action. It is also said to be effective in stemming arteriosclerosis, commonly known as hardening of the arteries. Doses range from 3 to 15 grains, 3 to 4 times daily. But, the powder may also be made into a tincture by combining a pint of grain alcohol land an ounce of hawthorn berry powder. The tincture is given in doses ranging from 1 to 15 drop. Though non-toxic, hawthorn can produce dizziness if taken in large doses.

Hawthorne has also been used in treating arthritis and rheumatism, and for emotional stress in nervous conditions.

The Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicine tells us:

Crataegus is a well-studied herb for use in cardiovascular disease. Historically, it has been used for congestive heart failure, commonly in combination with cardiac glycosides as it may potentiate their effects, thereby reducing the dose of cardiac glycoside drugs. The use of Crataegus in hypertension, arterial sclerosis, and hyperlipidemia is well documented. The active principles are procyanidins in flavonoids, which cause an increase in coronary blood flow due to dilatory effects, resulting in an improvement of myocardial blood flow. The drug is positively inotropic and positively chronotropic. The cardiac effect of contagious is said to be caused by the increased membrane permeability for calcium as well as the inhibition phosphodiesterase with an increase of intracellular cyclo-AMP concentrations. Increased coronary and myocardial circulatory perfusion and reduction in peripheral vascular resistance were observed. High dose may cause sedation. This effect has been attributed to the old oligomeric procyanidins. Cretaceous extract has been found to prolong the refractory period and increase the action potential duration in Guinea pig papillary muscle. One study demonstrated that a Crataegus extract blocked the repolarizing potassium currents in ventricular myocytes of Guinea pigs. This effect is similar to that of class 3 antiarrhythmic drugs and may explain the antiarrhythmic effect of Hawthorne. Crataegus, due to its high flavonoid content may also be used to decrease inflammation, decrease capillary fragility, and prevent collagen destruction of the joints.



This article is an excerpt from The Medicinal Trees of the American South, An Herbalist's Guide: by Judson Carroll

His New book is:






Medicinal Shrubs and Woody Vines of The American Southeast An Herbalist's Guide
Read About Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else: https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/06/medicinal-shrubs-and-woody-vines-of.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B2T4Y5L6



His other works include:

Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else

Read About Growing Your Survival Herb Garden for Preppers, Homesteaders and Everyone Else: http://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/04/growing-your-survival-herb-garden-for.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09X4LYV9R



The Encyclopedia of Bitter Medicinal Herbs:

southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/03/the-encyclopedia-of-bitter-medicina.html

Available for purchase on Amazon:

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0B5MYJ35R



Christian Medicine, History and Practice:

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2022/01/christian-herbal-medicine-history-and.html

Available for purchase on Amazon: www.amazon.com/dp/B09P7RNCTB



Herbal Medicine for Preppers, Homesteaders and Permaculture People

southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/10/herbal-medicine-for-preppers.html

Also available on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09HMWXL25



Look Up: The Medicinal Trees of the American South, An Herbalist's Guide

http:///www.amazon.com/dp/1005082936



The Herbs and Weeds of Fr. Johannes Künzle:

https://southernappalachianherbs.blogspot.com/2021/05/announcing-new-book-herbs-and-weeds-of.html



Author: Judson Carroll. Judson Carroll is an Herbalist from the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina.

His weekly articles may be read at judsoncarroll.com

His weekly podcast may be heard at: www.spreaker.com/show/southern-appalachian-herbs

He offers free, weekly herb classes: https://rumble.com/c/c-618325



Disclaimer

The information on this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any disease or condition. Nothing on this site has been evaluated or approved by the FDA. I am not a doctor. The US government does not recognize the practice of herbal medicine and their is no governing body regulating herbalists. Therefore, I'm just a guy who studies herbs. I am not offering any advice. I won't even claim that anything I write is accurate or true! I can tell you what herbs have "traditionally been used for." I can tell you my own experience and if I believe an herb helped me. I cannot, nor would I tell you to do the same. If you use any herb I, or anyone else, mentions you are treating yourself. You take full responsibility for your health. Humans are individuals and no two are identical. What works for me may not work for you. You may have an allergy, sensitivity or underlying condition that no one else shares and you don't even know about. Be careful with your health. By continuing to read my blog you agree to be responsible for yourself, do your own research, make your own choices and not to blame me for anything, ever.
2 weeks ago

Carla Burke wrote:

Judson Carroll wrote:
Actually, that is one of the nice things about not being a clinical herbalist.... I eyeball all my measurements and only have please myself!



Agreed! I can increase or decrease potencies, add in things that some might balk at,, remove things that don't work for me, my family, my friends, and only do what I/we need or want, as we need or want it. I can wait for the weather to cooperate, and make soap outside, change up the herbs or fats in my salves and ointments, play with incense making, make things for gifts/ pleasure, and personalize it all. It's as much a gift to me as it is to anyone I choose to help, and lack of money never needs to be a reason to turn anyone away, because I forage as much as I can, render my own animal fats from food we will be eating, and hopefully in the next year or two, I'll even have my own supply of beeswax.



I call it Kitchen Medicine - I did not coin the term, but that is what I am all about.
2 weeks ago

Carla Burke wrote:Oh, MMYYYY!!! That sounds heavenly. It also sounds like I'm making what might be an unnecessarily strong tincture, lol. I do believe I'll start adding it's use to my daily routine, tomorrow. Thank you!



Actually, that is one of the nice things about not being a clinical herbalist.... I eyeball all my measurements and only have please myself!
2 weeks ago

Carla Burke wrote:Judson, when I tincture, I use the folk method, but with the Mimosa blossoms, I'm torn between packing them in a bit tighter, to get more herbal matter in, and not packing them so tightly the alcohol can't flow. The (always pale, even after double & triple tincturing) result, even when I'm packing it a bit more, is that I'm never confident that I'm getting the potency I'm looking for. I typically go 3/4 full, using fresh herbs, topped off with vodka, doing that 2 or 3 times with the blossoms moderately packed. How would you advise me to know, when all I can smell is the alcohol? (Especially when my nose is stuffy, lol)




I fill a gallon sized jar about 1/3 full of blossoms and the tender leaves at the stem tips, then pour in a half gallon of vodka.  As soon as the vodka darkens and has that wonderful mimosa scent, I begin using it.  Since I just make it for myself, I don't try to be precise.   I have also put about a  1/3 cup of mismosa blossoms in with a quart of kombucha or kefir.  This makes THE BEST kombucha and kefir!  It tastes and smells like watermelon, is very bubbly and has a kick to it!
2 weeks ago

Mark William wrote:That is exciting! When I found this thread my partner, an herbalist, and I looked everywhere to see if we could find references for that species without luck. AJ has experience with preparations from the local trees, so I may try it as an experiment on my own histimine issues



I agree!  I have severe nasal and respiratory allergies - very bad allergic asthma, as well.  I found that the native mimosa where I live, the julibrissin did make a noticeable difference a a single tincture after a few weeks of regular use.   The first thing I noticed though, was it helped with pain from a pinched nerve.  When combined with stinging nettle, ragweed, mullein and thyme, I found the perfect formula for my needs.  It may be that lebbeck is stronger in this regard and would not need to be combined with other herbs.  But, as I am allergic to what grows in my area, I find that using local herbs helps me most.  THis formula was a real lifesaver during the height of the COVID epidemic, when the sourced for codonopsis from whom I usually purchased were sold out for months on end, and my allergies were compounded with the virus.  I survived it with these herbs, a few antiviral herbs and some generic mucinex.
2 weeks ago