Welcome to Permies!
Before I launch into my "Dorkings are AMAZING!" speechifying, you're getting good advice.
Every breed *can* be a good breed for what you want, depending on where you get them and what the parent stock is like. I've had great birds that were from great stock, and awful birds (but good breed reputation) from awful stock. Your birds are coming from a currently unknown source, so that's going to affect what your birds are going to be like. We can only answer in broad generalities and for our own experiences and what we've seen in reading, other's experiences, and our best guesses.
For most livestock, if you get your initial chicks/young birds from a local animal keeper, you'll probably get reasonably good stock that will fit the bare minimum of what you're looking for. If you want to experiment, mail order chicks are the way to go, from a mail order hatchery that's either in your general region or large enough to ship nationally. The older the company, and the better organized it is, the better your initial orders will be treated. There are problems with mail order chicks, so that needs to be considered, too.
I don't know if you have previous experience with chickens, or any other bird, what your housing situation is for the birds, how you intend to brood, .... There's a lot of general information that does affect what kind, age, and type of birds you're looking for.
Hopefully you're considering getting chicks in the spring, which gives you a few months to get your supplies together, decide on a breed, decide on a hatchery, get on the list for that breed at that hatchery, and get your funding together for the order. I suggest chicks in the spring because that's when you get the largest possible options of breed and type. There are chicks available year 'round from hatcheries, so if you decide to get one of the "production" type of breeds (all the hybrid and dual purpose hybrids), you can order them at just about anytime, as long as you're willing to pay for heat/cold packs to help the chicks in shipping.
If you're looking for a breed that's adapted to cold weather, the larger the body, and the smaller the comb, the better.
If you're looking for a breed that's adapted to hot weather, the larger the comb, and the smaller the body, the better.
Any long term temperatures below 0C and 32F will necessitate special care being taken, but that care isn't anything onerous for most people. Most chickens are pretty good at generally temperate (75F/23C to 32F/0C) temperatures with protection from wind and wet. As long as you aren't too far outside those temperatures, any chicken breed would do well.
This website has a list of 100 birds as well as some advice and is something I've recommended to others : Website of "List of Chicken Breeds".
This one has a more complete listing of chicken breeds, but not quite as much information that's useful to a homesteader: The "Complete" list.
There are individuals that will behave in a unique and interesting way. Over my years of "chickening", I have had "production" birds that went broody. I've had "unreliable" layers that laid every day for 6 weeks. I've had "calm" breeds that were absolutely awful for my flock, and "aggressive" breeds that got along fine with everyone. It's best to make decisions based on the known traits and tendencies, but always keep in mind that you are raising tiny dinosaurs that will happily prove you wrong in everything.
There are trade-offs. A large dual purpose chicken will take longer to grow up but will have a tendency to lay larger eggs than a smaller or faster growing chicken. A small broody will not be able to sit as many eggs as a larger broody.
My Lavender Orpington has handled the freezing cold and impossibly hot temperatures with equal ease, but lays a nice brown egg every three or four days and has only gone broody once in her life. She's also not one of my more adventurous chickens, never leaving the yard unless the gate is open and solidly middle of the flock.
My Gold-laced Wyandottes got frostbite on their combs, but didn't do as badly as the Barred Rock in the cold weather. My Dominque didn't blink twice at the freezing sleet, and handles the heat like a champ, going wading when it gets to be too much.
I only just have the Marans (they're about 5 months old?), have never had Brahmas, and can't speak to the Australorps. I know a few people who really really like the Australorps for their size (which is useful for dealing with certain situations) and their tolerance for wild temperature shifts.
I will join the others in saying that Easter Eggers can be the most wonderful, adaptable, and smartest of my flock. I'm actually placing an order for new additions in the spring since I'm finally looking at the last one in my flock and I need their silliness around. At 5 years, she was still laying an egg every 5 days or so until she went into molt, and I hope she restarts when she finishes molt. The Easter Eggers have proven to be heat and cold tolerant, and didn't cause trouble of any sort. They are the easiest of my flock to train for silly tricks and things.
I will now advocate for Dorkings.
Dorkings are smaller bodied than many of the other dual purpose chickens. They don't travel far but are active foragers. I have never had to worry about where they might get to or if they might bother the neighbors. The roosters are calm and the only roos I have had that consistently Not Attack me, but Do Attack predators. I had a Dorking roo who stood off a Carcara and have had several that defended their flock against dogs, cats, and bobcats.
They have a reputation for being bad layers, but that's in part because a Good Dorking hen will brood. I have had multiple Dorking hens who would only break brood for caring for chicks before going right back to it. One hen was so persistent, she brooded for 75 days straight, only stopping when she hatched a gosling.
Another part of their bad laying reputation is that they lay a smaller (average for my flock is a medium) sized egg roughly 1 out of 3 days. I have found that *where* I get my chicks from really determines how well they lay. Some of the commercial hatcheries have Dorking flocks that are geared toward a production hatchery model, so they lay and don't brood, but the focus is more on conformation than laying so ... They are pretty birds that don't do much of anything except taste good.
What sorts of things are you really interested in for your flock? Would you be willing to put up with silliness for a historic breed, are you looking for something that's more hands off, or are you just thinking about getting started with a flock and want to have good birds to experiment with?
New Hampshire and Rhode Island Reds are great starter chickens, as are any of the English breeds. Buckeyes have a reputation for being easy keepers and are great for colder areas, having been developed for people in Montana and Canada.
Really, there's more than one chicken breed out there for you, or you can go landrace it and just have fun with the chickens that do well for you.