When I lived in central Indiana we got some powerful storms. Thunderstorms, gushers, dousers, what have you. But not gullywashers. Indiana doesn't have gulleys. :)
If you're talking about placing stock tanks without any drain holes outside, filling them with grow media, and thinking that some broken pots on the bottom are going to help with moisture control, my answer is no. Not even if the stock tanks were 5 feet high and you piled in 54" of broken pottery and 6" of soil on top. Those stock tanks are going to act like... well, like stock tanks when that first rainstorm hits. By the second or third rainstorm, water is going to pour out the top as the plants form a floatilla and raft away down the street singing sea shanties.
When you put plants into a drain-less container, no matter how big or small, you are now doing hydroponics. You have wholly detached the growing media from the rest of the earth. You cannot mitigate moisture, allow passage of worms and other decomposers, allow passage of spores or weeds, etc. It now becomes 98% your responsibility to control how much water goes into the beds. I do my fair share of growing in closed and partially closed systems, and I strongly prefer partially closed systems with drainholes and access to rain. Closed systems indoors are not bad but you have to stay on top of things.
I think your first idea of building the beds from locust is excellent. If you got someone with a chainsaw mill out there you'd be off to the races.
If you already have these stock tanks and they have some holes or damage in them, then I'd add more. Vertical slits starting 6 inches from the ground up, about 4". Maybe cut out the bottom. You'll need to build braces either way.
If you already have these stock tanks and they don't have holes in them, you have an excellent opportunity for aquaponics. Build raised growbeds from PVC pipe, gutters, plastic sheeting in wooden channels, etc and have them drain into the stock tanks. Fill them with lightweight aggregate like expanded clay pellets, or even heavy media like pea gravel. Put tilapia in the tank and pump the water into the grow bed. With a bit of creativity these backyard aquaponics pods are quite beautiful.
If you don't have the stock tanks already I'd consider building the beds from concrete block, corrugated roofing panels, or your rot-resistant wood. Leave them open at the bottom (maybe hardware cloth to control pests) and then load them up with rotting wood, straw, manure, etc. Then you're getting the best chance at moisture control, both surplus and drought.