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Bryant RedHawk

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since May 15, 2014
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Bryant RedHawk currently moderates these forums:
Part Nakota, part Irish. The Nakota took over long ago but still lives in two worlds, the European world and the first people's world. He lives on a small (15 + acres) piece of mother earth deep in the woods. Was trained in the cooper's arts as a child, since the family owned a cooperage. He has been a carpenter, and timber wright but love all aspects of farming.He holds a BS in Chemistry and Biology and a MS in Horticulture. Worked for the USDA for 16 years. Currently working on his PHD in Microbiology, the thesis is plant communication through the micro-biosphere network. Redhawk and his wife Wolf are setting up to be fully self sustaining, growing all their own foods and collecting rain water. "Soon we will be self sustaining and closer to being off the grid" he said when asked about future plans. They continue their own research both in Agriculture and soils with the hope to make the world more like it used to be, before mankind began screwing up the Earth Mother. This is the only way humankind will survive, we must fix what we have broken.
Arkansas - Zone 7B/8A stoney, sandy loam soil pH 6.5
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Recent posts by Bryant RedHawk

you are getting close to fruiting Wayne, see the small bumps near the bottom of that photo? those do indeed appear to be the start of a fruiting body.
10 hours ago
That appears to me to be the result of citrus whitefly larva, which are not only tiny but also almost transparent (hard to see without some sort of magnification).
These larva attach themselves to the underside of citrus leaves and flower stems, they secrete a "honeydew" like substance and this is perfect food for sooty mold which can be found on flowers and leaves.
In your photo there are enough of these larva present that I can see them on the undersides of the leaf just below the lowest dead flower, it is probable that the larva did some migration to the flower stems since those would have more sap flowing to them than the leaves.

If you shake that tree and tiny white flies start fluttering around the tree, you have discovered the problem causer.

Citrus trees are notorious Nitrogen feeders so, to help the tree be healthy adding rhizobacteria so it can get to the root system is one of the best things you can do for any citrus or other fruit trees.
A spray down with a good aerated compost tea will also help the tree fight off any new attacks or diseases.

Since the tree is container bound it would be a good idea to lift it every two years and give it a root trimming so that there is room for root growth in the barrel half. (think bonsai root trimming)
container grown citrus can use up their soil nutrients in a single year when artificial fertilizers are being used.

Redhawk
11 hours ago
ok Fredy, Actually there are two plants that use Frankia instead of Rhizobium bacteria for N fixation, the first is sweet fern and the other is sweet grass found in the great plains.

The main thing to remember about actinomycetes is that they are much slower growing than Rhizobium species. This means it takes them longer to populate a plant, once they establish though, you can tell because the plant will start growing very rapidly.

If you grow peas, beans and other legumes, you have Rhizobium not actinomycete bacteria working in the roots.

There seems to be some confusion about the role of pH in N fixing bacteria mostly from where the scientist writing the report lived and worked (this needs a regional report built) different parts of the planet use different strains of both types of bacteria.
Fungi work in sync with the N fixing bacteria in most cases. The problem is that where you find lots of fungi hyphae the soil generally has enough N available which means the bacteria are going to go else where since there isn't any need for them in that location.

Low O2 does not equate to No O2, anaerobic conditions will either kill or shut down bacteria that want even one molecule of O2 for respiration needs.

Yes the plants do have hemoglobin compounds as do the bacteria

Rhizobium nodules can be the size of a full grown butter bean, Actinomycete nodules can be the size of a Soft Ball. (hence my reference to "small" nodules with Rhizobium)

Severed nodules are best used as "seed" you slice them in half and then place them next to a living root. Optionally, you can do as you have described doing, both work, the sliced nodule will just give up the bacteria faster.

Teaming with Microbes has (in my opinion) some erroneous information which was caused by the timing of the book being written more than an author error possibility. (most of what I offer up on this site is current (last year or this year research done by me and my assistants)
Once a book is written, any new information from research means a new edition of the book has to be written. (my book will offer (at least I hope this will be the way it goes) yearly updates so the purchaser of my book has the opportunity to stay as up to date as possible.

Redhawk
1 day ago
Check to see if it is allowed to put in erosion controlling "sea wall" type construction, if so that will go far in preventing any more land loss.

Soil building is dependent upon organic matter being able to get into the soil, mulches do double duty since they not only buffer rain erosion but also leach organic materials down into the existing soil, enriching it and providing the foundation for the microbiome to flourish.

When planning guilds around preexisting trees, you have to first understand the needs of those trees (unless you aren't planning on keeping them), guilds do no good if they create stress on what is already there that you plan to keep in place.

Grass is one of natures best erosion proofing plants, it also sequesters mass amounts of carbon, provides homes for micro and macro organisms and adds organic matter as the hair roots sprout, die and decompose (this is a continual process with all plants, roots are born, live, die and decompose).

Redhawk
Like Chris brought up, acidic soil is great for growing blueberries, cranberries and saskatoons without any extra work needed.

Acidic soil isn't going to support vegetables much and if you chip those trees and use the chips as mulch you will be keeping the soil acidic, lime is the counter to acidic soil.
Leaving the stumps, while a lot easier than pulling them and trying to replace the missing soil, is again going to do nothing about reducing the acidity of the soil.

What I would do in this particular case is first decide if you want to grow blueberries or another acid loving berry or a combination of them.
If you do, then just cut the trees in "blocks" as Chris also brought up and begin the transformation slowly.

If you can, start an aggressive composting project, this too can work with the small blocks at a time conversion and the areas that get the compost will probably start shifting pH to something better for growing non-acid lovers.
By converting blocks, you can use the powers of observation to determine how well what you are doing is working for you.

Asparagus is another item (even less maintenance needed once established than blueberries) you might want to look into.

Redhawk
5 days ago
Description: Commonly known as "the bitter oyster", "the astringent panus", "the luminescent panellus", or "the stiptic fungus", is a species of fungus in the family Mycenaceae, and the type species of the genus Panellus.
A common and widely distributed species, it is found in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America, where it grows in groups or dense overlapping clusters on the logs, stumps, and trunks of deciduous trees, especially beech, oak, and birch.
During the development of the fruit bodies, the mushrooms start out as tiny white knobs, which, over a period of one to three months, develop into fan- or kidney-shaped caps that measure up to 3 cm (1.2 in) broad.
The caps are orange-yellow to brownish, and attached to the decaying wood by short stubby stalks that are connected off-center or on the side of the caps.
The fungus was given its current scientific name in 1879, but has been known by many names since French mycologist Jean Bulliard first described it as Agaricus stypticus in 1783.
Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed P. stipticus to have a close genetic relationship with members of the genus Mycena.

This is a species that grows on Hardwoods.
It will be interesting to see how well it does out of it's preferred element for growing.

Redhawk




5 days ago
In my case it helps keep stray spores from settling in and growing (I grow outdoors exclusively for now).

I tried logs in two spots on the farm and found out the hard way that for me, even those need to be inside a building to prevent contamination. ( I have since that event come up with a breathable cover (gray non woven and non plasticized roll of fabric) that is large enough to cover two stacks of logs.

If these are in your grow room just removing the cover should be enough but you can add a cloth cover if, like me, you like to sweeten the odds to your favor.

My next foray will be into some new for me species like morels and porchini.
5 days ago
Excellent! This is one of those trees that benefits more from the use of aerated teas than it does from the usual soil amendments.  (Donkey manure is by far one of  your friends for those trees)

manures you will want to stay away from are; Cow, Goat and Sheep. Manures you can use without worry (once composted or well rotted); Donkey, pig, goose/duck and chicken.
I like to mix rotted manures with chopped straw then use as my mulch layer, by keeping the soil mulched you are also allowing a slow seep of nutrients for the tree roots (if you can get some mycorrhizae onto the roots, the trees will love you back)

Redhawk
5 days ago
My best winecaps live in very dappled (about 100 lumens, think I'll take a light meter out there this weekend so I can give you a more accurate assessment of the light quality) light all day long, so you might want to remove the lid and perhaps replace it with a piece of thin white cloth.
I have some well worn white sheets I have kept for such occasions, since they are thin they do let a lot of "filtered" light through. Another item that would work is a piece of light row cover material.

Ask away kola, I'll give you the best answers I can.

Redhawk
5 days ago
Did you test your soil components for phosphorus prior to deciding to use the iron oxide? And if so, how much phosphorus was indicated by the test.

What nutrient base do those trees require for good growth and nut production?
Does the soil contain silica? silica is generally needed by both plants and bacteria/fungi for processing many of the minerals for uptake by the plants. (it doesn't take much only 0.5% by weight or volume)

Redhawk
5 days ago