I would split the dome into north and south halves. The north half would be framed to hold insulation, likely perlite, inside of it. I would probably try to insulate the south wall at night from the inside, by hanging quilts or something or possibly even building a shutter that would slide around to the north half when not being used. Elevating the beds and using reflective surfaces would definitely be involved. A climate battery to draw the rising heat back into the earth would probably be used as well. There would only be one entrance to the greenhouse, so it's not a high traffic area. I'm ok with having to walk around the house instead of cutting through the shortest path. I would hope that adequately isolating the house would be achieved by a layer of scoria bags, and the earth filled bags would be on the interior of the house. Do you think a vapor/moisture barrier would be needed? It could be placed between the bags if so, with ventilation for the living area and greenhouse separated. Snow accumulating on the southern roof did cross my mind, but I just figured I would manually remove it, unless I came across an easier or more efficient way. Wouldn't the shape of the dome shed most of the snow down to the lower, outer roof? I also need to consider how to seal the seams with something capable of withstanding low temperatures.
I've considered the walipini, but I'm waiting to see how far down I can dig. I'm also planning on multiple structures, whether they're guest houses, sheds, or a garage. Money isn't really a factor to me for this property, because it's more like a hobby or experiment. A large part is just finding out what works, and being as hands on and diy as possible with it. After that, I can evaluate where costs could be cut or what could be done differently to help other people interested in building in similar climates.