What caused the rapid disappearance of a vibrant Native American agrarian culture that lived in urban settlements from the Ohio River Valley to the Mississippi River Valley in the two centuries preceding the European settlement of North America? In a new study, researchers from Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis reconstructed and analyzed 2,100 years of temperature and precipitation data—and point the finger at climate change.
Employing proxies of prehistoric temperature and precipitation preserved in finely layered lake sediments, somewhat analogous to tree-ring records used to reconstruct drought and temperature, the IUPUI scientists have reported on the dramatic environmental changes that occurred as the Native Americans—known as Mississippians—flourished and then vanished from the Midwestern United States. The researchers theorize that the catastrophic climate change they observed, which doomed food production, was a primary cause of the disappearance.
duane hennon wrote:
the remaining Native Americans couldn't really take advantage of the buffalo and start to flourish until they had the horse
The laboratory immediately stumbled into a scientific hornet’s nest. That Cherokee princess in someone’s genealogy was most likely a Jewish or North African princess. Its scientists have labeled the Cherokees not as Native Americans, but as a Middle Eastern-North African population.Cherokees have high levels of test markers associated with the Berbers, native Egyptians, Turks, Lebanese, Hebrews and Mesopotamians. Genetically, they are more Jewish than the typical American Jew of European ancestry. So-called “full-blooded” Cherokees have high levels of European DNA and a trace of Asiatic (Native American) DNA. Their skin color and facial features are primarily Semitic in origin, not Native American.
At present, the researchers at DNA Consultants seem unaware that throughout the 1600s Iberian Sephardic Jews and Moorish Conversos colonized the North Carolina and Georgia Mountains, where they mined and worked gold and silver. All European maps show western North Carolina occupied by Apalache, Creek, Shawnee and Yuchi Indians until 1718. Most of these indigenous tribal groups were forced out in the early 1700s. Anglo-American settlers moving into northeastern Tennessee and extreme southwestern Virginia mentioned seeing Jewish speaking villages in that region until around 1800.
How the occupants of the North Carolina Mountains became a mixed Semitic, North African, European and Native American population, known as the Cherokees, remains a mystery. Slave raids may have been a factor. The 18th century Cherokees were the “biggest players” in the Native Americans slave trade. Perhaps young Sephardic females were captured by slave raiders to be concubines and wives
Chris Kott wrote:
We can't get anywhere if we're constantly treating each other as though belonging to other species with questionable rights...We need to proceed from an assumption that everyone deserves to have their rights respected and not impinged upon, regardless of gender, gender identity, sexual preference, culture or ancestry, religious affiliation or lack thereof, or current position in socioeconomic terms.
Chris Kott wrote:
Either that, or I am misunderstanding your question.
Archaeological data allow us to consider human actions over extended periods of time in a way that few other sources can. This is particularly true when it comes to studying human resilience in the face of environmental disasters. From approximately A.D. 450-1400, a Native American group known today as the Hohokam overcame a harsh desert environment along with periodic droughts and floods to settle and farm much of modern Arizona. They managed this feat by collectively maintaining an extensive infrastructure of canals with collaborative labor.
The new excavations, however, were able to employ optically stimulated luminescence dating methods that reveal how long-ago quartz sand particles were heated by the fiery desert sun. With this new dating technique, the researchers were able to identify three distinct damaging floods that occurred between A.D. 1000 and 1400.
After each flood the Native American communities that relied upon the canal system to irrigate their fields banded together to repair the canal intakes, clear the channels of accumulated sediments, and repair canal walls and berms. Responding to disasters, however, strains social systems, even in the best of times.
Dr. Scott Johnson, author of Why Did Ancient Civilizations Fail, notes “Throughout human history, from the Egyptians and Romans to the Maya, the more that people modify their surroundings, the more they become dependent on those alterations.” By A.D. 1300, Hohokam populations throughout the Southwest were rising, resulting in increasing strains on natural resources and human social organization. The third flood identified by Desert Archaeology, Inc. brought more drastic consequences for the Native American communities living along the Salt River, with shrinking populations and only minimal repairs to the canals.
Johnson adds that “As the environment changes over time, for both natural and anthropogenic reasons, the more difficult it becomes to maintain those modifications. We see it in the Hohokam canals, Mesopotamian flood agriculture, Maya wetland farming, and our own society's dependence on fossil fuels. We ignore the examples of the failure to adapt throughout the ancient world at our peril.”