Canning times are fast when there's a thin fluid that can circulate around, transferring heat from the hot edges of the jar to the center of the jar. When you must depend on conduction of heat, as in tinned meats, processing times are very long. I read about it in the context of canning tuna in a commercial setting. The slow transfer of heat by conduction is one of the reasons meats are stored in small thin tins.
Now, imagine heat transfer through a layer of puff pastry. The air pockets slow down the heat transfer and I doubt the rate of heat transfer in dry bread is very high.
N Mt wrote:wood chips are great for a cover crop. anyone who tells you the LIE that it will tie up nitrogen, tell them to go test the nitrogen and plant/tree health out in the forest floor and then come talk to ya cuz it's totally bogus. that only happens WHEN you MIX the chip down INTO the soil, not when it's used as a COVER CROP.
I have also heard this message frequently. Can you give some evidence for your claim? I suspect that you're right but it's always best to measure.
N Mt wrote:
ain't no body out in the forest tilling the earth, adding fertilizers or disturbing the soil, it's all a perfect system, not a lot o work necessary.
It's only perfect in the sense that it's natural. Erosion, forest fires, crop failures, extinction, and population variation (as in, food crop failure) are all natural. It seems to me that a balance is needed between high yields* of current farming practices and completely natural systems. Permaculture, as I understand it, leans toward natural but most of us do intervene to ensure we get the right species and enough of the crops that we want.
The idea that tilling the soil is bad still confuses me. I've seen lots of posts here about breaking sod and breaking up hard soil. These activities are needed because small plants need a low-competition environment to get a good start. And a fine seed bed is needed because roots of small plants have finite strength.
Anyway, back to cover crops. My land is Class 2e which means it's basically good-quality soil but it's prone to erosion. In the ridge where we are, it really is best to have a cover crop to keep the wind from carrying off so many years of soil development. Plus, it's a nitrogen input and it's inexpensive at that. Just make sure you till, plow, turn, etc before the plant gets going too much in the spring. I understand rye can really get ahead of you in just a few days. After it gets woody, it doesn't make much of a green manure crop.
BTW, I just learned that soil moisture levels in the spring are much more controlled in areas where there's a cover crop. So if you're worried that you won't be able to plow to get your rotary tiller in there because of wet spring soil, the cover crop will help with that.
* Depends how you measure. Quantity over quality may not be best for human health. There's a lot of talk about micro-nutrients these days, which are generally thought to be diminished in high-yield fast-growing hybrid crops.
My vote is for the guinea pig also. Yep got exposed in Peru also. Easy kept very tasty. Build a mud oven and get to roasting. Enjoy.
I also have highland cattle. They are excellent small acreage animals. They can live on a rock. You can milk them great butter fat content and very docile animals. But for FRESH and super easy to raise go G Pig. You won't regret it.
I think the key is site location and preparation. Keep the structure and insulation away from water.
I do not contest the superiority of foam as an insulator, but it is very, very expensive (and its rigidity has some drawbacks in creating the "umbrella"). If I can get a semi-load of expanded perlite for $1,000 (for argument's sake), I won't cry over having to use 8 or 10 inches of insulation instead of 4. When I priced 1" of sprayed closed-cell insulation for my attic (7 years ago), it was over $5,000 for about 1800 sq.ft..
I am sure there are drawbacks, beyond being friable and at least somewhat hygroscopic, to using expanded perlite and I will keep researching it, off and on, until I have found more of them.
August Brooks wrote:In our tests, our stove will burn about 1/2 cubic foot of wood in 2 hours. That's roughly 15 pounds of wood. If one pound of wood gives off 8600 BTU's, then the total BTU's produced by 15 pounds of wood is approximately 129,000 BTU's in 2 hours. Take into consideration the wasted heat from the exhaust which was 130 degrees F, (for demonstration purposes) we'll call it 10% BTU loss. That means that our stove alone (without a thermal mass), is giving off 116,100 BTU's over 2 hours.
Now, when adding a thermal mass to this equation, the heat loss goes down considerably and the total BTU's utilized is a much higher percentage of total heat produced. Conventional wood stoves can't even come close to this percentage because they send most of their BTU's out the exhaust.
I want to believe. However, let's do the math. A BTU is roughly a kJ. You say that 1lbs of wood gives 8600BTUs. This may be the case in oven dry wood, so I'll give that to you, even though it's unrealistic in air dried wood. This 8600BTU figure is about as good as you could possibly get, as far as I can tell. Any more
I'll convert that figure to SI units, as that's what I'm familiar with. 1lbs of wood = 8600BTUs = 9073kJ. 15 pounds is 129,000BTU = 136,102kJ. If this is supposed to heat a house for 24 hours, we can work out the average power. P(average) = W/T = 136,102/(24*3600) = 1.57kJ/s = 1.57kW. Now 1.57kW is a fairly pitiful amount of power.
I've seen some estimates of daily wood requirements for other rocket stoves. For example, 35lbs/day in the worst of winter, a winter that gets to well below freezing. That equates to 3.6kW. That is still not a lot of heat unless your house is very well insulated. For example, my house has some insulation in the roof but none in the walls. It is 1200 square feet in area. Our heat pump's maximum heat output is 8.5kW. On a night that was no colder than 8 degrees Celsius, (46F) this heat pump was working its hardest and was heating the house barely adequately if the doors to the kitchen and dining room were open as well. Presumably with a rocket stove the heating would have either been insufficient or we would have had to use more wood.
August Brooks wrote:(E). Due to the hot rock and second burn you will actually use less wood ex. 1 cord vs 8 cord
It is specifically this that I am dubious about. Now, I absolutely hate smoke from wood fires, I hate that it causes asthma, and I hate that in areas that do not have sufficient government regulation the whole of a region must suffer because of the selfishness of those who pollute the neighbourhood. However, there are relatively clean commercial stoves out there these days and I'm finding it hard to reconcile the claims of using 1/5 the wood as one of these (being generous), all else being equal. Does anyone care to comment?
Actually, that number is correct. It is the avg btu output of woods available in north america and is the avg for all wood here, softwood and hardwood. The bottom of the spectrum begins at around 8k btu's and high end, which is produced by highly resinous hardwoods is 9.7k. I believe the numbers are for 1 year old "seasoned" wood. Meaning, air dried wood as kiln dried wood would not be economically sound to use as firewood. It's the resin content of the wood that effects these numbers more so than drying methods.
K, good point. I missed the particle board part of the OP. I was thinking of plain old sawmill sawdust.
Jen, I have looked at the bio logs and they are good for using biomass in a normal wood oven--but they are kind of a PITA to make unless you have slave labor to do it. Even with the engineers without borders press (probably the fastest human-powered method there is) it takes a lot of time.
The ScytheSupply snaths have round, unangled grips that force the user to hold the tool excessively hard and puts strain on the elbows, for starters. The ScytheSupply snaths were designed to be easy to make, market, and sell--with much less thought put into how they would actually work. For information on properly selecting or making a snath I suggest consulting the reading materials on ScytheConnenction.com--there's a ton of it to go through and it's very well written. I, however, prefer American pattern scythes, so my own suggestions come from a totally different school of use.
Bill, I'm discussing the compounded piston steam engine with reheat and heat regeneration. In my opinion, this is the most practical way to get both high efficiency and decent power in an external combustion engine.
A great discussion is the engine designed by Dr. Robert Bourke. See www.newsteamengine.com. His is optimized for vehicle use, but a stationary system would be even more efficient, and biomass fuel can be used. His design is extremely sophisticated, and there really is no way around this sophistication if one desires to achieve those kinds of efficiency figures. However, I am convinced that the same basic approach (compounding, reheat, heat regeneration) can be used to achieve 20% net thermal efficiency without exceeding a steam temperature of about 700F and staying well below 1000 psig. Something like this would make biomass gasification obsolete for many stationary applications. Think about it: You have equal or superior net efficiency, there is less fuel processing required, the system is quieter, all the heat from the system is available at the condenser and steam is an excellent heat transfer medium (much better for cogeneration than trying to harvest heat from a gas engine), and the system can operate at very low speeds for long periods (steam engines excel at this).
Personally I would open each can before throwing it away, just to check it out. Of course that makes for a messier throw away than unopened cans, but you might get lucky! And it could still go into compost, couldn't it? A little at a time...
Creighton Samuiels wrote:If nothing else, a pound or two of candle wax inside one of those boil-in-bag ziplock bags, sitting in a spare cookpot on top of the heat riser surface until bedtime; and then placed into a soft, insulated wrap would be a great gift idea!
Would also work inside of a microwave using this kind...
An original idea, but it should work. This procedure is known as back slopping and is done with bread and was often done with traditionally made salamis. With sauerkraut it will work as well. What yo do is introduce a quantity of a known and proven product, the product that has turned out well before. You don't need to use all of the original pickle/brine. This might be too acidic for new bacteria to ferment and survive. What I would do is save the original brine in a refrigerator and use only 20% of it. The rest will be cucumbers and freshly made brine. You will definitely get a jump start on fermentation and may even lower slightly the amount of salt.
Well, it is GMO, so I doubt there will be much interest in it here. You know, for planting in our own gardens.
Some farmers may try to use both methods but there's lots of logistics in getting nitrogen into the soil. If that could be avoided, some farmers will give it a try. Also, inputs are a major category of expense on a farm. If there's one thing you can bet on, it's that the bottom line matters. So if it saves money, there will be customers.
Also, it should be noted that too much nitrogen in the soil will produce certain defects in plants. Pink-eye purple-hull peas, for example, won't produce if there's excess nitrogen. On the other hand, I've never heard to a corn plant getting too much nitrogen....
I agree that aesthetics are very important, and as you say, can be with you a very long time indeed. The brick arch is a very nice touch! I like masonry arches, and have done several in dry laid stone for a wonderful affect to the general project. These masonry elements are much more time consuming to do and also, whether materials are free or not, they are costly in the labor, as well as, fiscally. (Very beautiful though, and often worth the effort, if the general theme is heavy and stone based.) Depending on the design, the nice element about all wood and cobb oven units, with only stone at grade level, is ease of construction, and speed of removal/relocation should the need arise. As for aesthetic, because of the 'plastic' nature of cobb, it is much more yielding to artistic endeavors than stone or fired ceramics, from a time and ease of manipulation in the medium. I love stone and as a stone carver lean that way often, but practicality is the forefront of most domestic "cobb oven projects." . I would also add, that of the stone arches I have done, several have been retrofits to what Terry is currently considering, so the masonry can always be an augmentation for a later time should the desire come forth.
There are lots of buried-garbage-can designs out there but I'm completely skeptical. My parents did manage to keep some root vegetables over one winter but getting anything involved shoveling off a sheet of plywood and getting down in the hole. The first few attempts were successful but later they went back and found everything frozen. They figured the straw wasn't put back right or the plywood didn't contact the ground all around, causing heat loss. Anyway, my point is still accessibility. Obviously, you have to balance that with cost and time of construction, and other constraints per your situation.
I encourage you to try some kind of root cellar, even if it's not perfect. I started with a shelf in a tuck-under-garage type house. It worked and was a powerful example of the advantages of working with Mother Nature.
You are welcome! That is a sad demographic fact seen here too. Most of the old timeys here built their farms on the industrial model with massive pesticide use. Is the orchard in question pesticide free? Do also check the actual condition of the trees (get a ref. book on apple diseases) and the types and ages of the trees. Old groves do die off. However, if there has been a rotation of trees and organic land management practices, this could be an awesome opportunity to get a jump start on your plan. I did check out a similar situation out here for a pear orchard and it did not pan out due to the prior owners actual care of the Keep.
Well first, I'm not a huge fan of "Living" or "Grow" roofs. Don't get me wrong, I think they are beautiful, but the lifespan of most is under 30 years the way I see them done. I would strongly recommend doubling up on everything, and also create an air space with small spacer purlins. Also possibly a "cold roof" system as well. With this arrangement, (more $$) you could expect the same lifespan as a good standing seam or slate roof.
Now for the inspector, it may seem a bit clandestine or surreptitious, but a grow roof from an engineering or architectural/design perspect isn't a grow roof, it's a rubberised multilayer roof very similar to (if not exactly like) whats on most commercial buildings with flat roofs. You are just upgrading materials, beam and purlin systems and possible (recommended) venting system, such as the cold roof. I would not even approach that you may (or may not) put a few plants up there, it's not germane to the design or engineering since you have already done those numbers yourself. All they need to know, and understand is you have built an extremely well engineer and strong low pitched roof, that could take way more load than other roofs for you given region. Don't ask questions you really don't need answers to.
My recommendation to the OP is to contact other animal welfare or rescue groups and ask if they can send you to a vet they work with, who will sell you the medicine at cost. A vet who will spay or neuter a feral or adoption cat is doing so as his pro bono work, as he does it at cost, and may be willing to extend it to the OP's need. I believe the OP mentioned feral cats, which takes the whole operation to a greater level of difficulty.
Some people in these welfare groups also have access to and experience with veterinary medicine and may be able to assist you. Or, if you can take a fecal sample to a vet so the vet is assured you know what you are talking about, then the vet may be willing to continue to supply you with medicine upon request, without having to examine individual animals. Same goes for the animal welfare volunteer who has vet meds in his possession.
Many vet meds are available online. Once the OP is certain of the nature of the worms, then OP could simply order the treatment on line. Costly? Perhaps. It is also possible the animal welfare groups may be willing to assist with payment. I have a friend in the cat spay and neuter field. Her little (and I do mean little) foundation is happy to assist private individuals not only with spay/neuter but also other services if they seem urgent and the private individual is unable to provide them. Sometimes money is not the preventing object for obtaining help from these groups. Usually, their greatest problem is having to place to keep the unwanted pets that people try to give them. If the individual will keep or be responsible for the animal, the group will give the needed help.
Hello Ivan, Reading about your Tempwood stove led me to google it. Yep, that was the same hotbox I had for years in the 1990's. It didn't have any labels on it.
I did find a current website at www.tempwoodstoves.com It looks like they still make them in Adams, Mass.
Now I'm using a small Century s244 secondary reburner. For thermal mass I came up with the Idea of 6 SSteal pots on top (18 gal) and 2 x 8 gallon "tamale pots" stacked on each side. (32 gal) for a total of 50 gal of mass. I also have 2 cast iron fire backs in intimate contact with the stoves sidewall (18" x 20" x1"). The tamale pots hold them up.
I have access to a large supply of plain cardboard boxes. I'm thinking of cutting it to the firebox size and putting a cast iron grate on top to weight it down and slow the burn a bit. Wood on top. I'll be trying this as the shoulder season gets here in Connecticut (I hope)
Thanks for the Tempwood memories. I spent those winters in boxers during the burn.
First question (probably stupid). What does "4 inch" RMH mean ? I see no dimension listed which is 4".
Second question. I'm not a welder or a DIY person in metal at all. Are small fireboxes available readymade - in the UK or France ? Indeed, does anyone supply thewhole unit as an easy-to-assemble kit in the UK or France ?
As to combining the best features of these stoves: as long as the combining happens downstream (that is AFTER) the burn unit, there should be no difficulties.
One of the nicest modifications to rocket stoves has come from the Russian stove tradition, the Bell.
K Nelfson wrote:Anyway, you don't need heat to curdle milk, if that's the goal. Use a non-thermophilic yogurt culture if you want control over the process, otherwise let nature take its course and you'll end up with curds in a few days.
This. Are you trying to have human consumption off this or just animal? On our dairy anytime we had a cow whose milk wasn't qualified for sale we'd just fill buckets/barrels with the milk and let it sit outside. One way or another (A day to a week depending on weather) it would always separate off and the chickens loved it.
Brandon, you could also do a bell, it holds heat for less time, but it's lighter. Tho, depending on the insulative properties of the bell material, you can regulate the speed at which the heat is released and the heat accumulation.
For example, cob will release heat slower than concrete, and concrete slower than metal. You can also do single bell, or double bell. (the barrel is somewhat a bell in certain conditions)
IIRC concrete will hold more heat than cob for the same thickness.
The advantage of the bell is that heated gasses stay trapped on top. And the exhaust of the bell is on the bottom. Ok, they get diluted if you don't block the feed tube, but if you do, via movements of convection, the top stays hotter.
Besides that, i don't know about the states, but in France, where i live, a wooden floor has to resist to 300kg per square meter permanently. That provides with a bit or leaway for mass. Tho, not huge ammounts.
Thanks guys, i am aprreciated for your help.
Your answers gave me an idea to make connection from the french drain situated near foundations and which will cover few meters fence lenght to the pond. Situated in area where compost pile is placed now.
When spring will come i will start to dry out foundations (by digging soil for 60cm depth) and make some waterproof insulation on them. Then i will decide which way is best to drive water somewhere from house foundations
Cris Bessette wrote:
I guess the idea is you slice off a slab of congealed meat stuff, and smear it on bread?
Mmmm. Slab of congealed meat stuff. When you put it like that...
It sets into a firm jelly, so no smearing. It's eaten like a terrine: a slice, served with pickles and stuff.
The scary/ugly factor's why I bothered with the cheffyness of clarifying the stock; and the slices looked really quite pretty!
I'm not likely to have a pig's head lying about the place very often, let alone the fiddling about, but it was one of those food things I've always been curious about.
I'm Leila and I am a food nerd.
your just adding organisms to breath the plants waste gas. I do not know what the conversion rate of O2 to CO2 and vice versa through respiration. Because Nitrogen is also released as gas from the pile, I recommend adding Nitrogen fixing bacteria to all plant root systems, Azospirillum Brasilense can inoculate most, maybe all plants.
You may notice greener, thicker leaves; brighter, bigger flowers; denser fruit; and thicker stems from CO2 supplementation. Don't expect instant results from a worm bin or a compost bin, populations need to increase before respiration cycle really gets going.
allen lumley wrote:- there is a lot of interesting and related information on termites , I did a ''permies' ' general search'' and found lots of information ! esp. in the Huglekulture section ! Allen L.