I'm no expert on grafting, but here's my general understanding. Root stocks keep the properties inherent in their genes, and the tops keep the properties inherent in theirs. They basically use each other for the missing half. The roots need the trunk and tops to get carbon and sunlight. The tops and trunk need the roots to get water and soil nutrients. Other than that, they keep their properties. If you grow root stock from seed it will act like a seedling tree's roots. If you clone your root stock, it will act like a cloned tree's roots. Transplants act like transplants, etc. If you graft on the main trunk from another tree, the top will act like the main trunk of the tree it came from. If you graft a twig from a mature tree onto a seedling rootstock, then that trunk will act more like a tree branch than a trunk. The differences may be very subtle but still there.
Polyparadigm, your idea about grafting branches onto the central leader makes sense. However, you may want to modify it to grafting some twigs onto the leader at an earlier age. Otherwise you'll likely have to do the waiting process over again with the new branches. Does anyone else see this? I'm not entirely sure about this one.
As for the non-self-pollinating apple tree, my understanding is that the franken-tree allows for the same tree to self-pollinate amongst its varieties. I've heard it is actually possible to take a lone mature tree, graft on a twig from a crab apple and start producing apples. But you are really just growing multiple trees on one set of roots.
I don't remember exactly where I researched this, but this might give you some good points to google for.
Here's a pic of the line between me and one neighbor. Mine is the one on the left with a deck and garden in the background. I mowed both the day before. Same height, same mower. Not all my lawn is this green. Another section is more monocultured, not sure how or why, but it is. That section is brown like the one on the right. I attribute this section to doing well because of the white clover. You can see some of the remaining blooms that were too low for my mower to get. The only real difference between the two yards is the other one is monocultured and maintained with chemical fertilizer and pest/herbicides. Mine is a mix of grass, clover, dandelion, and other turf, maintained with organic lawn food. Both get rain water and no irrigation.
For clarity, I said lawn, not grass. I have huge patches of clover, especially in the back yard. These areas are noticeably greener than the surrounding areas. I'm hoping the clover will spread to the rest of the yard, and it is making good headway. Two of my neighbors mow insanely short, even through summer. Their lawns don't do very well due to that. I did manage to get a pic today of the line between my yard and my neighbor who mows high. Well mowed high until they moved out. Now I continue to mow high for them. It turned out well, and I will have it posted tomorrow. I still have to downsize it for posting to the website.
Hey Paul, is there anyway to have a compression feature or picture quality function for uploading oversized pics? Resizing them manually is a drag.
buddy110, that makes sense. Kinda like an insecticidal soap, but for killing plants. Good idea.
That is a bunch of nice looking topsoil. Just out of curiosity, no hating here, did you use the roundup to produce all those bare spots? Just trying to build a background to help your lawn. If you did, follow the recommended re-seeding waiting time on the label. After that time is up, you should have some grass spreading back into those areas. You can speed it up with some seed covered lightly with compost.
I'm previously guilty of the roundup mistake. I still have the bottle in my garage, just haven't had time to go to tox-a-way as it always falls in the middle of my work shift.
Good to know. The closest I've come to tomato wine is letting a bottle of ketchup stay in the fridge too long. Way too long.
I'm not expecting a bumper crop this year, since I was way late in setting my plants out. I was too busy recovering from full-time work and full-time school. I didn't get them out until the middle of June. I set out half my plants one day, and the other half another day, a week apart. Both days ended in the two worst hail storms this area has seen in a while. Sooo... My peppers and tomatoes are looking kinda sad. The peppers especially, as the hail turned them into stubs.
My wine making and canning experiments will wait until next year.
I love my dandelions. They are yummy! But I have noticed them becoming more sparse this year. Perhaps my extreme mow-a-thon this spring worked. For a week straight, I mowed every day, rain or shine, mostly rain. This was the week of the major spring dandelion bloom. I bagged the clippings. Voila, huge decline in my dandelion crop. Not to worry, I still have plenty to eat. I imagine if I were to keep doing that every time the dandelions have a major bloom, I could keep them down to a number that could easily be managed either by eating them, or pouring vinegar on them to kill them. Keep in mind my yard's background was one of neglect before I got it. You should be able to keep them, and the clover at bay with some vinegar. The grass should fill in nicely after the vinegar washes out.
Do that hole digging trick Paul mentioned. Grass seed on it is optional, as the grass will spread into it on its own. If you really feel like experimenting, try two holes. One with grass seed and one without.
The watering every week discourages your grass from growing its roots down. When your grass starts turning brown, its not dying. It is actually devoting its energy to root growth in search of water deeper in the ground. When you water on a regular basis, your roots have no reason to grow deeper and stronger as they can get the water they need from your sprinkler. This results in a weaker lawn.
Do the soil test. Start mowing, as often as you can, at no lower than the recommended 3". Make sure you're mulching your clippings back into the grass. The majority of weeds don't like this, but grass loves it. Can you get some pics posted? Get some of the lawn in general, close-up of some problem spots, and of a shovelful to show your soil layers from grass to base soil. Those would help give some more detailed suggestions. Also, some others may be able to identify your other weeds.
Vinegar is a good herbicide. Spot treat with it as you would roundup. Give your roundup to the local tox-a-way day. Once fall sets, start fertilizing your grass patches, spreading just past the grass. This should encourage the grass to grow and spread naturally. Use an organic lawn food. Ringers and Scott's organic are most common. Top the bare spots with about 1/2-1" compost, and rake in some grass seed. Keep the seed bed moist daily until the grass is established. Do this at the beginning of fall when you're feeding your grass patches. Summer is your grass' dormant period and watering, fertilizing and seeding are futile. You just won't get much bang for your buck and time doing anything during summer. So relax, get your plans together for fall, and sip some lemonade.
Grass by nature, turns brown in the summer, especially at the short height we keep it. It is okay to stop watering cold turkey right now. The grass will go into its natural dormancy and return in the fall. The watering regimens that many carry over the summer keep the grass from going into its natural dormancy. In essence, they're keeping it from its natural sleep cycle. I don't know about you, but I like my sleep as much as your grass does. When your grass doesn't get its sleep, it gets stressed and becomes susceptible to disease and pests.
There is another alternative to digging a well, and its usually much cheaper. Harvest your runoff from your roof. There may be some legal hoopla to deal with depending on where you live, but usually no more than a well involves. The system is much cheaper to boot. I won't get into it here, but there is some good info available ala google. I just run city water, but don't irrigate much. When I do, its directed at my veggies.
I would avoid commercial compost. Your best bet is mulching your clippings and fertilizing with either Ringer or Scott's Organic in spring and fall. It is a shame that your hubby says no to the clover. Clover is a great companion to grass because it is nice and soft, and due to it being a legume, also provides nitrogen to the grass. It will help the grass stay green through the summer. If you can't get him to keep it, try vinegar on it. It will kill the clover and the grass should spread back over the spot. Wait until the beginning of Sept. for this. You don't want weeds to take advantage of a bare spot. Try and talk your husband into letting you grow a patch of clover somewhere, maybe near your garden. He may warm up to it. My wife doesn't like the look of clover, but I've persuaded her of the benefits, especially since we have three puppies running around in them.
Some things to consider: how much traffic does the back yard get vs the front? What kind of grass? Have you had soil tests done, separately for front and back? Summertime is a good time to do this to help get an idea of what needs done in the fall. The results will probably be geared toward a chemical approach, but many of the permies here could translate into sustainable practices.
I have a feeling your pH levels are different between the two. This is common since many builders just dump any concrete waste in the front and bury it. Also your driveway and sidewalks contribute to soil alkalinity.
When you dug down, did you notice any worms? You should have had several in that chunk you showed. I suspect it will take some time to get the worm population back up if you just stopped the chemicals. The worms are crucial to aerating and "tilling" the soil. Their tunnels allow oxygen to penetrate the upper levels of the soil and they carry nutrients and expel them along the way.
Sorry, I haven't had time to get pics yet. I should do that tomorrow. There is a good comparison that I hope will show up with my cheap-o camera. My neighbors' lawns are all chemie lawns. I mowed both mine and one next door today, same height and mower. Neither of the lawns get any water other than rain. My other neighbor mows insanely low, even in the summer. Both are noticeably browner in person, but I don't know if it will show well on my camera. Now as green as my lawn is, it has its fair share of companion plants interspersed with it. Others may call them weeds, but they stay low and green for the most part.
I don't think the mulching thing isn't too extreme. In fact, you're doing it now unless you use a grass catcher with your mower. It is an important part of the method to leave your grass clippings, either for helping repair, or for general maintenance. It sounds like you've found the mindset, so let us know how it goes and keep us updated. I grew up in a yard full of clover and bees. The only time I got stung was by a wasp. By then I was old enough to know better, but invaded their nest anyways. As long as you keep close tabs on your kids especially when they're this young, I don't see a problem. Get your kid tested for bee allergies, just as a precaution. I'd recommend that whether or not you had a lawn full of clover. For those allergic, bee stings can be deadly in a matter of minutes unless the antidote is administered. On the plus side, the bees are too busy with your delicious clover to care about your toddler, but always err on the safe side.
Sounds like you're on the right direction with making compost for future spreading. You said you set your mower on the highest setting. What kind of mower and how high is that? Like Paul said, grass goes dormant in the summer. That is normal. Give the Ringer some time. It sounds to me like you've trained your grass to want water. Stop the watering. Especially over the summer. If you train your grass to expect less water, it will actually need less water. As a consequence, it will stay greener longer in the summer dormant period. The only time I drag out the hose for the sprinkler is when the soil in my garden gets dry. My lawn doesn't see a drop of it and is the greenest of my neighbors. The only water my lawn gets is from rain, and we do get some dry spells around here.
Two things happen. First, worms love compost. They'll eat the compost and deposit worm castings as they travel through your soil. They also aerate your soil for you. Second, as it rains the compost becomes a sort of compost tea as the water passes through it into the soil. Aerating has some limited uses with organic lawn care. It can be useful for breaking up a severely thatched lawn. It really came to being as a way to compensate for killing off natural soil aerators with chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. To sum it up, it really won't hurt if done properly. But, it really is just an extra, unnecessary step in most cases.
The best thing to do right now is not do anything to the lawn. The lawn is going to sleep for the summer and doesn't want to be disturbed until early September. Just keep mowing it, but set your mower to 3" minimum.
You're definitely mowing too short. You should be mowing it down to 3", not mowing it down when it gets to 3". Being from central Indiana as well, I can attest that lawns around here love to be longer. Believe it or not, your lawn will actually grow in height slower if you do this, and you won't need to mow nearly so often, unless you want to. It also adds to your overall lawn health by allowing the grass to put its resources into plant health, instead of having to heal itself every time you mow. Instead of the grass putting all of its resources into regrowing the tops, it can build a healthy root system. Set your mower to at least 3" and you'll see dramatic improvements in a few weeks, especially once the fall grass growing season kicks in. Its not the end all, cure all, but its your best bet right now. That should also help your thatch problem. The lawn grows slower, therefore creating less thatch buildup when you mow.
Stop watering over the summer. The grass is going dormant and doesn't benefit from watering. However, your weeds love the water! If you want weeds, then now is the time to water! So stop the watering. Your grass will get a little brown. That's what healthy grass does around here in the summer. The main thing is you won't be watering your weeds while your grass sleeps.
Aerating might be a good idea in your situation, but I would leave the thatch where it is and not overseed. You have grass already. It will spread itself via its rhizomes and runners. The thatch will get better as you do the things to repair your lawn. The aerating will help get water, oxygen and nutrients to the top layer of soil. Topdressing with a good homemade compost would be a good idea. If you do these two steps, wait until the beginning of September.
Talk to your hubby. He should realize that your lawn is a chemical junkie. Just like the human variety of chemical junkie, it will take some time to rehabilitate it. In the mean time, it can get a bit ugly. Again, this is just like the human variety. Don't panic. This is normal. It will get much better in time. And you'll have a beautiful lawn that your beloved child can safely play in. The key is patience.
If you find that it is not even when you spread it, you can do this. Take a steel bow rake or aluminum landscape rake and flip it so the flat side of the head is down instead of the tines. You can then spread the compost in such a way that it is even, level, and not compacted. Just dump a wheelbarrow in a spot and spread the compost from there.
Don't forget that even healthy cool season grass will look a little sad during the hot summer months. Don't waste your time and money on trying to fertilize with tea right now. In fact, I agree with Paul that its too much work for the results. As with many things, less is more.
If your lawn is largely bare dirt, I'd suggest placing a layer of mulch from an organic source. Make sure it is organic. Many sources of mulch include rubber tires, treated lumber pallets, and other toxic waste. Don't use those. My first big attempt at soil improvement involved tilling the sod under. With what I learned from that, I'd suggest not tilling. But after leaving that area bare for awhile, I discovered that the condition of the soil was rapidly getting worse and not better from the amendments I had added. That was lesson number two actually. The amendments are good, but there is one single thing I think turned my project from disaster to recovery. That was laying mulch over the dirt. The mulch regulates and moderates soil temperature and moisture. These two things make the worms, microbes and insects happy. Happy fauna for a happy lawn, ahhh. Excuse the pun. The mulch also breaks down and enriches the soil.
My suggested cheap, and lazy way of doing this is simple. It's like Paul says: Mow high, leave the clippings. I would also add that I let my lawn get a bit over grown a couple times a year to help get a good mulch layer. Not too much as to clog the mower, but enough to build some biomass in one mowing. You know what's used to grow your mulch, so you know its good. Remember the part about making sure its organic? Plus, you get free mulch, spread for you on your lawn. If you get some good spots growing while others are bad, maybe bag or rake these good spots every third or fourth mowing and spread the clippings on the bad areas.
Next, what's your feelings about clover? I personally love it and let it grow as it wishes in my lawn. Clover is a legume. This means its gets happy with a certain bacteria called rhizobium. The bacteria pull nitrogen from the air and makes it into plant food, while the clover makes sugar and feeds it to the rhizobium. Win-win. The same nitrogen plant food made by the rhizobium is also available to your grass. Win-win-win. Yay! Go Team! Get some white clover seed (or similar legume suited to your area) and throw it around. Or better yet, if you already have clover, encourage it to grow and spread. Why waste time and money on buying and spreading seed when you already have it?
I've not yet tried popping corn in CI ware. I have found a successful formula for stainless pots though. It is like Paul suggested. Get the pan hot first. Then add oil or grease. Once the fat is hot and gets its first wisps of smoke, add the popcorn and drop the heat to low/med-low at the first pop. Once the popping gets to a second or three inbetween, remove from heat. I also toss the kernels ala stir fry a couple times until the first pop. Top with salt, pepper and an Italian seasoning blend. mmm...
I'd add to the steel wool that it should be extra fine. 0000 is best. I have tested and an electric range element that has just started to glow is hot enough to ignite 0000 steel wool. And yes, kids do think its very cool. I should know, as I learned that trick as kid in scouts. Very cool to have in you bag of knowledge as well. That's an idea: wire up your rocket igniter to a "clapper." Just don't do that with an actual rocket, as you'd be violating some safety rules. I still have a few of my old rockets. Hopefully I'll have a chance to fly them someday soon.
I love the clover, but my wife is like you, she hates it. I win because she doesn't do yard work. I think of the clover as free fertilizer. I don't encourage it or discourage it. It just does its thing for me. The grass doesn't mind either. In some places the grass is starting to take back over the clover on its own. Its more that the clover and grass keep moving around each other.
I think feminism is kind of like unions. They both started out with a good goal. But neither stopped with "right." Both movements pushed for more. I can think of any cause in the name of the better good for all, that either didn't get off the ground or was taken too far.
I don't really think its really limited to men vs. women. There is rich vs. poor, religion A vs. religion B, liberals vs. conservatives, etc. There are many classification of people that think their class is better than the other. I think its really human nature. I think the person who has no delusions of grandeur, however small they may be, is extremely rare. There is the person who gets mad at other people's driving, or waiting behind the obnoxious person who takes their sweet time at the cashier arguing about some trivial matter. Any time you get irritated by someone else who has different view points, I contend that you're having thoughts that you're better than them.
It would have been much easier to remove the engine from a lawn mower. Vroom vroom power! Any mechanic would have a gear puller that should work to push the shaft out of the hub. In fact most auto repair shops would do this for you for a few bucks. They even usually have the oxy/fuel torches and die grinders in case the puller doesn't work. And I agree, chicken skin is worth the plucking.
Brenda, not all women and men have an accurate sense of icky-ness in the opposite sex. There are many who just find the opposite sex altogether icky, regardless of the individual. There are also many who find them altogether not icky as well. The former is just as bad because they don't sense when they're being taken advantage of.
Not so much that he recommends the exact format, but he recommends using you real name or initials in general. This is pretty much for the same reasons as mentioned in this thread. The overall maturity level rises with the use of real names. Raymond mentions that there is a certain pride in having one's actions associated with their real name. Using a silly handle raises doubt as to the credibility of a person.
I have a feeling you'd enjoy his articles. http://www.catb.org/~esr/ Much of his stuff is geared toward hackers, as in software engineers. Not crackers, as in wannabes, script kiddies, and thieves. In his Hacker How-To he makes the assertion that the Hacker mentality is often present in other communities besides technology. Using real names helps set the hackers apart from crackers. The Hacker How-to is a good starting place on his site. It is listed in the Howto section http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/ As you've mentioned your interest in programming in other threads, I think you'd find it a good article.
Here's another perspective: How is this much different than college? Young men and women are away from parents for the first time, and are under the supervision of a teaching staff. Instead of learning academics, they're learning about living off the land. But I digress, you can't please everyone all the time.
Yes, my lot is 1/4 acre. Roughly half that is house, garden and hardscape. I've fertilized I think twice times out of this bag and still have over half. My first time using the stuff I fertilized at full rate and used up almost all the bag. I've seen no difference in lawn quality with the reduction. I can't say for sure what results you'll get. You may need to tweek it. You may need to use more or less at different times. The "if some is good, then a whole lot is real good" mentality is what the retailers use to sell those bags. The best advice I can give here is observe your lawn, it'll tell you what its needs and wants are. Don't use more than you have to get the desired results.
Too late! You already committed the ultimate sin: you were born with one less x chromosome! How dare you own land and have interns help you work the land! God help you because 50% of your interns have two x chromosomes! You lecher, you!
Is this uncomfortable-ness coming from the mere thought of what could happen in this situation? Or are these guys actually taking advantage of the situation beyond the free/cheap labor force? If the former is the case, then the role of lecher belongs to the beholder, and not the landowners.
On the surface, it seems as these guys are just equal opportunity employers. Perhaps they should make the female interns wear burqas?
I'd say the yellow spots are still recuperating from previous mistreatment, including your bout of weed-n-feed. Your lawn will take time to recover and adapt to the better way of doing things. On a percentage of the recommended rate, how much of the ringer did you spread each time? Do you have pets, or are neighbors' pets allowed to roam this area? Large wildlife? Can you attach pics?
Basically, cow peas are a legume. All legumes form a symbiotic relationship with a certain strain of the rhizobium bacteria. The legume provides the rhizobium with the food it needs, while the rhizobium takes nitrogen and fixes it into the soil in a form usable by plants. If your soil already has the strain of rhizobium that is symbiotic with your type of legume, then you don't need to inoculate. If it doesn't, or you are unsure, then you should inoculate the seed at planting time. The rhizobium generally comes in the form of peat moss that acts as a carrier for the bacteria. Simply, you wet the seed with water and mix it with the inoculated peat. This inoculates the seed. Plant immediately after inoculation. The rhizobium should come with directions for inoculating, or you can search for them online. All the details should be outlined in those directions. Most places that sell legume seeds will also carry the rhizobium. If not you can search online, as was the case for me.