Here is one example I found of pathways in a rubber tree leaf:
Some things I have noticed about this design:
1. Some of the side veins are mirrored on the other half of the leaf, some of them are not perfect mirrors.
2. Near the edge of the leaf, each major radiating vein joins the tip of the next one.
3. In between the major radiating veins is a network of tiny veins
- One trail design that I have seen work well is to have no trail design at all. Instead, just let people walk wherever they want to, and over time natural paths will be formed. Put your "paving" material where these natural paths have been formed.
- Keep in mind that any land used for paths is not growing plants. Thus you might want to allocated just the bare minimum for paths. That is one reason I am using a keyhole design for my vegetable garden.
- In a food forest it is OK to walk where there is no path. You don't need a path to every single plant. You want paths where you will be walking often. If you have a fruit tree that you visit only a few times a year, you don't need to make a path to it.
- On the other hand, paths can be a key part of your design aesthetic. i.e. you can have paths which are mainly for visual appeal. It depends on your goals.
Sinks operated by foot-pump are (or used to be, when I was a kid) fairly common on older/lower tech sailboats. You may be able to find parts for them at marine swap meets or elsewhere. Ours pumped out of a 30-gal nonpressurized tank when I was a kid, I imagine it wouldn't work too differently with a much larger cistern.
It's not only fermentation contributing to farts . Swallowing air has a lot to do with it . Masticating the beans into a paste adds a lot of air into the mix which is then swallowed with the food bolus . Burp or fart . Those are the only ways out .
If you go to http://www.permies.com/forums/posts/list/34193#267492 there is a link to the "Apple" thread, as well as several other links that help define how this site operates. Those links pretty well describe the missions of this site, as well as the methodologies to best enhance its powers to improve the overall value to its participants.
Ive had my farm for 20 years, 10 of which it has had horses on it... The number has varied from 5 to 2 on 13-15ish of my 20 acres which is located around atlanta ga. My property when purchased was covered in large granite slabs 'some large enough for substantial house foundations' MANY pine trees, Few varied oaks, box wood, clay and sand. Im proud to say after ten years of horsing here my farm has gained tremendous amounts of topsoil.
larger variety of plants around whole farm
i havent mowed a lawn in 5 years
Im also a huge proprietor of horses having a purpose. EVERYONE is happier with something to do and take pride in...
I DONT KNOW WHAT I would do with out my boys, they are like my left leg and my right hand!
Even my 35+ horse still enjoys taking me around the fence line several time a week, a task that would have to be done a foot other wise.
As for my young buck hes my right hand man that is called on for lots of things aka
dragging fence panels
trees Chasing loose goats
quick farm rounds
many years of income from with riding lessons
I could never see my life without at least one horse in it...
I don't know if the calcium is being locked out, it was just a thought. Also, If anything is going to be able to bring up calcium I'd think it would be trees which you're already feeding. I think you might need to see what other locals are doing if they have this problem -and report back!
I'd be looking at a multispecies, multi-height planting.
You want a decent depth of windbreak, not just a tall but narrow barrier as is seen with eg lines of poplar.
Wind is most effectively "broken" by being forced to trickle through a filter, rather than being deflected by a barrier. Denser plantings of ever greens tapering upwards to your tallest trees in the middle.
The "Permaculture Handbook" has an excellent section and diagrams on designing these to be effective and multi functional.
This works great as a great breakfast and a social time.
Prepare all the elements for the most diverse omlettes you can imagine, chopped and diced or shredded and in small serving bowls lined up on a table. At the end of the table is a large canning pot of boiling water. At the head of the table are eggs and double seal freezer bags. Guests and residents put their name on the bag and then crack however many eggs they want in the freezer bags adn then drop in whatever omlette fixin's they want. Zip the bag closed and shake it up a bit, toss bag in the big pot of boiling water. Everyone stands around chatting about stuff and the making of the omlettes in bags, and watching them roll around in the deep boiling water. They can see when the eggs are done and simply use tongs to get them out and unzip them and PRESTO, the omlette slides right out of the bag onto a plate and the cook didn't do nothing but chop up fixin's and everyone has fun doing it. Less to clean up, too!
I would imagine that the kombucha tea might be good for making the soil more acidic in the short term. You might even be able to use if for an herbicide if you let is sour for a while (like vinegar). You could probably even preserve some of the microbial life if you mixed it with biochar and then applied that concoction to the soil. If you don't let your kombucha ferment for a while you could run into problems with ant though.
really early flowers are an interesting case. around here, warm spells long enough for the bees to fly in February aren't exactly uncommon, but it probably isn't wise to count on them. when they do occur, the bees seem to find plenty of forage. I'm quite certain that providing more would be helpful, though maybe only marginally so.
this year, we had a couple of warm weeks in February that I would guess were enough to start them raising brood. there was a lot of pollen coming in. then it got cold again. real cold. right through to the end of March. having committed to raising brood, they were now on the hook to keep them warm through weather cold enough that they couldn't forage. many didn't make it. of my hives, those that did the best were at higher elevations. they didn't get that warm weather in February, so they didn't start raising brood. would more forage available in February have made the situation more promising? I'm not sure. their population is relatively low at that time, so they might not have the workforce available to take advantage of any extra treats.
from the middle of July on through maybe October, though, additional forage plants would be very helpful. things are generally pretty dry here around then, which makes nectar hard to come by.
Along these lines, we have had a lot of discussion over the idea of aging the product for two years and then feeding it to a "poop beast" - which would be a species that would readily/quickly take up such material.
Jeannie Sayers wrote:I would really like to do a living roof on our next building project.. wonder how well it would do at filtering toxins?
it depends on the toxins. It would also add a significant amount of organic matter to the water, tannins as well, so keep that in mind. I love living roofs, and if you don't need catchment, I think they are good. Alternatively, you can use the water from the living roof to store in a pond or in the soil, rather than in a tank.
Metal is fast, cheap, and easy. We have several metal roofs, but I don't like them for living spaces. Barns and sheds? Sure, but they are too loud and hot for a living space.
I prefer concrete/geoploymers in one of the many forms (ferrocement, latex concrete, reinforced concrete, concrete tiles, etc) for roofs. They are slightly more expensive than metal, requires more labor, but their thermal, longevity, and sound performance are unmatched.
1. Teach my first PDC Finito! The students' projects were really creative - I'm so proud of them. 2. Work on my "hedge fund" (as per this post) This is NEXT UP and will get installed in the fall with a little help from my buddies at Watershed Management Group and their Green Living Co-op.
3. Finish the earthworks in my front yard (infiltration basins) - see above 4. Attend the Water Harvesting Certification class in Tucson in March - become a certified water harvester - It's official - I AM NOW A CERTIFIED WATER HARVESTER! Wow - that was one of the hardest classes I've ever taken.
5. Do an internship with Geoff Lawton at his Greening the Desert - the Sequel site in Jordan in Oct/Nov. Due to limited vision and other stuff, I will probably be documenting the project for use as a manual or case study. This is off the table this year until my health improves which really bums me out. However, I can now participate in a few local activities such as the Green Infrastructure class that I would have missed otherwise. And I have time to be on the advisory council for a couple of local sustainability/permaculture non-profits.
I agree if you have a good outside space for the messy kitchen activities that is great, but it needs a roof that you can do the things when the sun is blazing or when it;s raining, otherwise you want to work in the garden. Kitchen is not only storage a good sized kitchen table is important, you can bottle, sew , do school work and feed guestes.
My garden/farm production has increased several fold since last year. The space has quadrupled and total production should be about 8 times more than last year. My friend who does most of the work, has sold small quantities. Yesterday I prepared about 25 lb. of leafy vegetables for freezing. That's a huge amount of chard, kale and mustard greens.
Three of us are involved and I expect production to be enough to feed at least 10. The lady who does the bulk of the day to day work will likely realize $10 per day or so. It's a serious hobby at this point. She feeds herself, customers (they're good tippers) and other visitors.
My farm has the lowest production of our 3 spots. When farm production increases, I'll get my gardening partner to market the surplus. She's currently marketing spicy Thai dishes to those hosting parties. Her client base are mostly other Thais. This market is too small, especially when you consider that most families have at least one good cook and gardener. She gets invited to all of the social events where the food goes. The hosts introduce her to other potential customers. A fun hobby for a semi retired lady who likes socializing.
1) Know your resources: neighbors, loggers/arborists, local groceries, colleges, etc
-These are wonderful people to talk to for seeds, compost/mulch material, soil tests
-Connections and friendships are great for keeping costs low
2) Know your land: observe!
-What is your soil like? What is there? What is the layout of the land (climate, soil, pH, etc, contours of elevation, etc)? What do you envision?
3)Vision and Analysis: what would you like?
- I highly advise using the zone-and-sector thinking method for this.
-Vegetable gardens typically are highly cared for; so place it in Zone 1 (right outside your home) for easy access. Then, take note of what forces are coming onto your property and which ones your vegetable garden is in the way of (this is the sector analysis).
4) Design, implement, and evaluate: make a plan, do it in manageable peices at the right time, and observe the results
5) All else, just try something and things are bound to come together!
These tips paraphrase some of the advice from Gaia's Garden by Toby Hemenway. I highly suggest reading his book; it is chocked full of useful information.
The first certainly does look like a click beetle.
While I think the adults just mooch around,
their larvae aka wireworms adore potatoes and can tunnel their way through an entire crop.
But they love meat fat even more than potatoes-
my grandad used to bury onion bags of fat in the potato patch, with a marker.
Every week or so he'd dig it up, dump it in a bucket of water for a day to drown the wireworms, then bury it again.
As for that other bug-it looks cool!
once I posted to a local listserve and asked for worms and got them. I suspect in BC you could do the same thing and get some nice worms from someone who already has a worm bin going. i usually offer to trade seeds or cuttings when asking for garden stuff but so far no one has wanted anything and gardeners tend to be the generous nice sort they just give me cuttings (i have 11 tree collard cuttings from a recent listserv post!)
Get in touch with your Game and Fish Commission, they usually have a person or access to a person that will help you set up "game forage" areas and have a list of seed suppliers. You are most likely to get the natural, localized, grass land seeds that way. Look for some tall stemmed grasses such as rye (grain type) wild wheat, triticale, grain sorghum etc. I have my feed plots (both goat ones and wild game ones) planted with mixtures of these and red, crimson and white clovers. I have left out alfalfa for now since it could be a problem if to much is eaten by my goats while they are in the pasture. In setting up my farm, I am working to have as many natural grassland plants as possible.
First, we look for interest. One of the women who teaches gardening classes here was complaining that very few men attended her classes. We work with berries but mostly fruit trees. Nationwide, I believe more men work with fruit trees, building, energy, and earth works than vegetables and purpleness, for example. Other nationwide fruit organizations lead me to believe this.
We have events that are of great benefit to the members and potential members: Scion exchanges, grafting classes, the largest fruit tastings in N. America, free bud grafting classes, tours of members gardens, etc. We also have an electronic forum in which the majority of the posters and responders are men. We share information about projects that are challenging. This is very much like permaculture, and some of it actually is (mine for example), but some members use toxins. When we notice someone is returning, we remember them, acknowledge them and ask them what they have learned in their experiments/projects. We often ask them to help out on teaching classes when we notice an interest, experience, or expertise.
We do have more difficulty attracting younger men, because if they don't have a property, many people are not wanting to plant fruit trees for someone else. Also younger guys tend to be much more interested if there is beer, attractive young women and maybe a live band. Also if they can just spontaneously show up rather than be committed to it.
I think one of the reasons that a lot of men volunteer for Little League, Pop Warner, Boy Scouts, etc., is because they know they have the skills to help and not many others, do, so they know they are actually making a big difference. They're not just "throwing away their weekend". Still many more women stay home and take care of kids, at least part time, so to give an hour here or there isn't so much. If you're already working 60-70 hours a week and you have kids, it's really difficult to donate your very little time unless you're crucially needed. A lot of men take their kids' friends out hunting, fishing, rafting, canoeing, hiking, and it's not some formal organization.
Once a man reaches a certain age, say 40-50, he usually realizes that a lot of people helped him and he needs to help out. Sometimes it's mentoring, fixing things for their mom, or a neighbor, someone in the church/neighborhood/Habitat for Humanity. Usually, until he retires, he is amazingly busy with his own kids and projects. Often when he does retire, he realizes that he has a couple of serious injuries/operations and can't do the same physical work that he used to do before he had the time. Many men feel embarrassed that they can't do the same physical work that they used to do, and our society doesn't have much of a graceful cultural way of acknowledging it.
Libertarianism has some great aspects, but one side of it is "I don't have to do anything for anyone else. That's their problem". It's a big part of our culture right now.
I would like it if we found a way to use more cooperation in our society, by understanding how everyone wants to work together.
When I bought my place it already had an old neglected garden space covered in a mix of clover, weeds, and (not so lucky) bermuda grass. I immediately tilled just the rows for vegetables to break up the clay and kill the bermuda grass, then mulched the beds with straw, leaving the grass/weeds between. I've been reducing the frequency of mowing all around my 2/3 acre yard to encourage the clover to grow tall and shade out the bermuda which is working! Second year and the bermuda areas are shrinking - yahoo! Like Jay, I love to mow the paths and put the trimmings right back on the veg beds. And yes - I have a bazillion happy busy bees everywhere It's just a little bit of work once or twice a year to chop any grass trying to infiltrating the veg beds. I'm noticing that the more I mow the clover, the shorter and tighter it grows, so I'm hoping in a couple of years to reduce my mowing to once a year or even not at all (but I've not previously had experience with clover so maybe I'm kidding myself?) I admire Irene's gardens and strategies for naturalizing, but my full sun areas where I don't tread much will require several more years of food forest planting...meanwhile....
I've done deep mulching on the main paths around my outbuildings and house landscaping with fresh wood chips from an arborist. That was great for a year but of course that soon becomes compost and fertile ground for rampant grass and weeds - and requires annual applications of tons of mulch. Last year I didn't refresh the mulch and had mudpits (albeit lovely black gold I can transfer elsewhere) after a couple of snows.
I'm a huge believer in mulching areas where you want to improve the soil, but for pathmaking it's just too much work and requires regularly importing tons of material (for us small property owners). I also heartily dislike gravel (I work as a gardener in suburban yards where it's very popular) because it needs to be kept clean of organic debris or that also becomes a composted invitation for weeds and grass Edgings also are kind of useless other than holding in a raised bed because you can't mow right up to them, and any rhizomal weeds/grasses just go over or under, so again, maintenance of that edge with a weed whacker or cutting tool is constant)
Hi from Perth, WA ... Member of the freo permie crew, doing my Bachelor of Sustainability, slowly learning to live off the land and just about to do the PDC course. Have set up a food forest on my property here but ideally want to head back down south to get away from the city and live more sustainably. Love hearing what others are up to.
"I'm guessing that it might have been, by itself, a half-million dollar installation," said Mr. Whitcomb. "By high summer, it looked absolutely wonderful. Then began the cold weather, and the wind blowing off the steppes of New Jersey. By April, the wind had taken off almost all the plant material and most of the soil."
I have to say that this is BY FAR the strangest, and most captivating thread I have ever read on a forum! I have mixed feelings about alternatives to using toilet paper. That being said however, I know that the icky feeling I get when I think about using the alternatives is only because I have been conditioned by my culture to believe that using anything other than toilet paper is unsanitary and deplorable.
Since I have sewn my own pads for my time of the month however, I think I could be well on my way to going toilet paper-less. My husband would probably see this as a confirmation of insanity though! lol I sure am glad "I do until you stop using toilet paper" wasn't part of our vows!
Just to add a data point to this conversation ... I lived at Reevis Mountain School of Self-Reliance, in eastern Arizona, for six years. The place has been there for 34 years now. For that entire time, and to this day, they are using pit toilets. These are 8-ft deep holes with a privy placed over the top. They mostly poop but also pee in them (just the girls usually use them to pee - so more #2 than #1). They experimented over the years with using sawdust, soil, etc. but found that it worked fine not to use anything, just toss a layer of soil down there if it got smelly, which usually would happen only if it was being overused. When you look down into the hole at night you see gazillions of roaches and other bugs doing their work. We used regular toilet paper and tossed the cardboard tubes down there, too.
Usually it takes two to three years to fill up a hole, given the usual number of residents and number of outhouses (usually six residents using two main outhouses, with three or four others available but not oft used). When a hole is close to full they cover it with a couple of feet of soil, with a pipe down the center for ventilation. The holes are actually dug in pairs, so when one is full they dig out the old one next to it (easy digging) and move the privy over the top of it. The soil that is dug out is clean, sandy soil - not even compost-like. You would never know it used to be poop. As I said, they've been doing it this way for 34 years and I never heard of any problem.
At night, we would use a pee bucket with a couple of inches of water in it, rinse it out in the morning and occasionally use bleach if needed.
Is that Geoff Lawtons son making those tools? That's awesome! Thank you for that link.
I got one of these on amazon for 11$! It has a serrated blade, and works amazingly well, it even cleaned up honeysuckle and forsythia 1/2" thick. Much better than a machete, less effort extended and easy pulling motion. Thank you for the heads up Judith!
Ok, not a stealth pond, but...
So the story goes that Sepp Holzer was visiting a group of indigenous rebels, guerilla fighters, if you will. They needed a water source, but were not allowed to tap into the local water source, which, I believe, was on a military base.
So they built a stealth stream to get water without lettng anyone know. They eventually dig out a small stream, section by section. As they dug out a section, removing the top chunks of turf/grass and saving it, they then filled it in with rocks and then placed the piece of turf/top ground cover back on top of the rocks, so it would grow back into place, leaving an underground stream of sorts. The built it section by section until they finally reached and tapped into the reservoir/pond on the military base. No one detected their work, and their water problem was solved.
My only sense about this is that the leaves will ferment much more quickly than the beets. Beets will stay crunchy for a long time, but leaves like that will only be good in the summer for like a week, then they start to turn slimy and combine into the sauerkraut "soup". Timing is the issue. I like making a quick 3 day ferment out of leaves in the summer, but it's only leaves, not even cabbage.