Not sure if the pre-existing mycelium is a problem. I used wood chips that were a few months old but they were pine chips which you're not supposed to use anyway. Then I threw a bit of hardwood thru a chipper and put that on top.
This is definitely an open pollinated variety, so hybrid stuff shouldn't be the problem, right?
Not necessarily so. Most tomato breeds are the work of either a breeder, or Mother Nature.
Breeders often try to find the best qualities of several breeds, and then try to merge them all into one super tomato.
Most of the heirloom tomatoes are the results of cross breeding for specific traits.
An F-1 hybrid will not breed true, but if the breeder selects from only those plants which have the traits he was seeking, and then grows out a second crop (F-2) the next season, he should have a higher percentage of tomatoes with the desired traits. I have heard some breeders claim a fairly stable variety in as little as F4/F5, but those were usually cases where the desired traits were already the dominant gene.
When you are aiming for the recessive trait, it will take more generations to get a stable variety. If you are trying to get 2 or 3 recessive traits bred into a variety, it could take quite a few years to find stability in any quantity.
Many of the breeders here in the States live in the southern states, which allows them to grow 2 crops in a single year. This allows them to reach F-8 within 4 years vs. 8 years.
Perhaps the tomatoes you grew are open pollinated, but are not yet stable. If it's cross pollination, it could have been from the source of your original seeds.
I heard a couple years ago there is a bd practitioner in Peru who developed a gluten free version of kamut or spelt, using bd practices and homeopathic preps. It is or was apparently a registered variety there, under the name 'Condor'.
There is another bd practioner in Italy, who has similarly developed a rye grain that has a head 12 inches long, with 300 grains of rye. Commercial rye usually has around 80 grains. This fellow carries his rye grain head around in a test tube, as his business card.
as far as i know there is no actual word for a vegan who eats honey, and if there was i probably still wouldn't worry about it.
I was calling myself vegan before all the finer points of not wearing leather or eating honey actually became such a big deal, so i consider myself grandfathered in to the vegan club, and occasionally i have gone for years without honey, but maple syrup and the like is just so damn expensive, and i'm not going back to table sugar and corn syrup, although i will probably look at sweet crops i can grow, sorghum or some such, but by the point where i'm truly self sufficient, i probably will only be eating fruit most of the time anyway
When I was living on the ocean I made some sea water extract (ormus) by filling a 50 gallon drum with sea water, then slowly raising the pH to 10.7 with a dilute lye solution (around 1/3 cup of lye in a litre of distilled water) while stirring. I would then let the whitish precipitate settle for a day and siphon the clear solution off the top. This would leave around 5 gallons in the bottom of the barrel. I would refill the barrel with clean water then let the precipitate settle again, siphon off the clear liquid on top, and repeat as many times necessary until the clear liquid when measured with a conductivity meter was about the same as the water I was adding, is until the salt was mostly washed out. I'd pour the precipitate into a 5 gallon bucket and let it settle out further for another couple of weeks. In the end there would be around 2 gallons of precipitate, which from what I understand is mostly calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, plus all the trace minerals and plankton. I use it mainly for the trace minerals, which are important for building enzymes. Minerals from the sea are of a small size and good availability to plants and microbes.
I think your idea of covering with plastic is a good one, as in changing your tactic. I started this year on a abandoned allotment and did a real thin version of sheetmulching. (http://www.permies.com/forums/posts/list/160/21211#250961) Result: less chaos, but still chaos. For me, it was just a test and my conclusion is that mulching works good on existing garden soil, but not to turn wild weeds into garden soil. The weeds are just too strong. Remember that Ruth Stout did conventional gardening for many years before she started mulching with hay. There was much less weed to supress with the hay...
When I've made 'weed soup', it's an entirely different beast to what people call compost teas.
It's literally plants and water, sometimes with manure and/or seaweed.
It sits and stews for a long time and is anaerobic and hideous smelling.
I don't make it here in town as I don't want to stink out my neighbours
I was taught that using anaerobic 'liquids on the garden is not a good idea as the anaerobic bacteria kill off the desirable aerobic bacteria.
These days I'd go right ahead and use it (diluted) straight on the garden, except...
I avoid contact with the stinky barrel, so regular waterings would be very unappealing!
I'd rather have a few big sessions a year.
Anyone add anaerobic weed soup to the mix when making aerobic compost tea, or turn the soup itself aerobic?
I'd be interested to hear stories of transformation-there are three barrels waiting for me
Peter Ellis wrote:Some thoughts - Permaculture is a design science - so apply the science of permaculture design to the challenge of producing a really optimized value suburban property - and I mean optimized for sale. Don't think of permaculture as forest gardens and perennial vegetables. Think of it as a problem solving toolkit.
You want to improve your permaculture knowledge and skills, which is great, laudable, all kinds of good. You are in a situation that places restrictions on exactly how you may go about exploring and practicing permaculture. That really is not a problem - it helps focus your application of permaculture!
But the details are for you to work out My point is to think about this project in a very permaculture way - what is your desired yield? How do you best achieve that, within the parameters of permaculture? In this case, yield is selling price on the house, so plan in that direction. It will give you tons of permaculture practice.
Peter - Thank you!
This was exactly the advice I needed. Wishing I could do what I want to do right NOW is just dragging me down and killing my enthusiasm for doing anything. Changing my view of the situation to one of "opportunity" rather than "problem" is exactly the thing that I needed to do.
Thanks to everyone else for the practical project advice as well. I have a long winter of planning ahead.
Until our nutrient cycle is fixed I really don't have a problem with importing nutrients to my garden. If you want to grow high quality food (nutrient dense) you are going to export a ton of minerals (phosphorus, calcium, zinc, copper etc.) so you have to return them to the soil somehow (be it rock dust, compost or other fertilizers)
I'm in a very similar situation Miranda, MN, zone 4, tons of oak wilt, beautiful sandy loam soil.
The DNR recommends burning oak wilt wood, OR burying a tarp around/over it for a year and basically baking in to death.
What a waste.
Hugels are a better option and oak wood is great for it, I've built several with oak/poplar/boxelder/whitepine and although they are only a year old, it's showing great promise. I cover cropped them with turnips and radishes this year and tried a few choice spots with rhubarb(great success), tomatoes(some sucess), and squash/melons(needs work)
I also have witnessed 2 edible fungus types "fruiting" from them already, and I didn't even do anything but bury them. Chicken of the woods and oyster.
I'm not sure if they are out competing the oak wilt fungus, but I think since oak wilt needs spores to spread keeping the wood completely buried is going to eventually smother them. Just make sure to use enough soil on top and add thick organic mulch the first year otherwise they'll dry out. This thread can help with alot of questions.
If you have oak wilt it's not going away. It's kind of a fact of life in my area of MN. Sad but true.
Hackberries, any maple, and birch grow fast if you are looking to replace them.
- Its the sneaky-high pitched voice saying " But you/he said - " That makes me see red and thump the computer table so hard my Hand-stitched sampler ,
The one that says ''Be nice-play fair'' falls off of the wall!
The over day one got to me Sooo-bad it cracked my little boys heart, or rather the glass jug I keep it in, bottom left drawer ! If there is just one thing that
pisses me of its the other guys (sneaky) intolerance ! FOR THE GOOD OF THE CRAFTS whether they realize it or not ! Big AL
Joseph Fields wrote:Last year I could not figure out why my sheep were refusing to touch the grass. I have two huge crab apple trees that were loaded down. The sheep sat under the apple trees and ate them as they fell.
I've always called it cooking. Prepared foods like TV dinners, frozen pizza and macaroni are consumed in increasing quantity as you move down the socioeconomic ladder. Those who can least afford to toss money down the toilet, are the target market.
In the 80s comedy Momma's Family, the lead played by Vicky Laurence, is pitted against another woman in a chilli cooking contest. Her rival uses a can of store bought chilli and beer to win the contest. Momma protested the results. "That ain't cookin, that's heatin". I don't remember anything else of that show. We all wanted the cheater to lose.
kristi campbell wrote: What would be manually the easiest, quickest way to disperse this around my garden. Is there a method or gardening appliance anyone can reccomend-for a chick on her own with a mending fractured wrist?
Welcome to permies kristi
Yeah, is there a time frame due to er, 'societal pressures',
protecting the soil over a Northern hemisphere winter or a Southern hemisphere summer, etc?
Here's a useful thread if you'd like to add your location.
The only way I've moved chip is with a wheelbarrow, fork and shovel-
it is not the kind of thing I'd suggest for someone with a broken wrist.
I agree with others that it's a 'calling in the troops' scenario if the chip needs to move.
Do you have a local timebank? If you're involved with a community group, religious organisations etc...
I've been doing stuff with intellectually disabled adults for ages, and they often do this kind of stuff where I am.
If lacking wheelbarrows/tools but not helpers, you can just lay cheap tarpaulin(s) at the pile's base,
push chips onto it, carry it two corners each, dump and kick it around to spread
If you get helpers, the chip's been sitting around and the weather's been dry,
I suggest being prepared to either provide those basic dust masks, or water the pile as you go.
I don't do it for myself, but a pile can get some impressive fungal activity and the spores can apparently be a bit hard on some.
I don't know much about prairie, but I know a bit about chickens, and your system sounds like it will work great. Our chickens love to scratch in leaf litter and disturbed ground-- we have to screen them out of areas where we are establishing plants-- but they don't do any damage to established areas. We even had a volunteer garden of squash, tomatoes, and onions arise out of undisturbed ground and the chickens left it alone.
A little more cover would be nice, but it sounds like you have enough. Low ground cover from shrubs and bushes is at least as important as trees. We have 50 chickens/acre, and at 4-8 chickens on 1/4 to 1/3 of acre, you'll be even less dense than that. So I don't see any reason to think your chickens will cause you any more trouble than ours do.
I just went back to the site, and it appears that individual species can be downloaded (as many as you want), but not the entire book as a single download -probably causing too big a burden on their server - over 800 pages in one download!
They also have free downloads for specialty crops for the region, as well as other publications.
A great resource for those in tropical regions.
alex Keenan wrote:From some research and testing over a decade ago, if you added 20% expanded materials like perlite, expanded shale, etc. to the subsoil and topsoil you should not have issues with soil compaction.
Your soils has macro pores, meso pores, and micro pores. Clay has lots of surface area but only micro pore space. Sand has lots of macro pores but does not hold water. It is the meso pores that will hold free water the plants can use. I like organic material with all the life in it to build porespace. However, you tend to find that in nature organic material decreases as depth increases form leaf litter layer down to subsoil. If you want good deep roots in clay consider double digging and amending with porous non-organic material in the subsoil and with organic and non-organic material in the top soil.
This will badly disrupt the soil but it is also a one time event. With this start you should be able to cover crop and/or mulch from that point forward.
Appreciate the advice Alex, that definitely taught me something new, so then i take it the meso pores are materials such as perlite & expanded shale, pumice etc ?
I did come accross a few stones scattered in the subsoil while breaking up the soil to mix the compost, im not sure however if they will work they probably dont have the same pore space ?
It makes alot of sense what you saying though, i never thought about including aeration into my soil, it could definitely do with some, i will look into some alternatives to see what is available in my area, if you have any suggestions on alternatives i would appreciate that too, thank you !
I stopped using yeast spread straight away; aside from it probably being a pointless addition,
I imagine the high salt content could retard the yeasty action I'm after.
I've tried a few versions:
No beer at all, just yeast, flour, sugar, water.
Result-rubbish. I got a few, but I think they were just wandering past and fell in.
I thought I'd try a specifically earwig version by squirting a couple of fish oil capsules into the mix
('they' often say to make earwig traps out of fishy cans...)
Result-less than in the 'standard' slug pub.
I got over myself and asked about collecting beer from a local bar's spill trays,
but of course they clean everything at the end of the night, and they're not saving me old beer
So for now it's cheap beer, flour, yeast, sugar and a little warm water.
Thanks for the generous replies!
I may be foolish but the weeds don't scare me, as the lot is a sea of weeds anyway.
The stink is real, mind you I have spent the last two years as a drain cleaning plumber and am almost insensate when confronted with human sewage.
I suspect the conditions are crowded and less than ideal.
The whole opperation seems seedy, but who am I to talk?
I am wondering if cardboard over the poop would smother seeds and smell alike.
I ask because while leaves are easy to get in season,wood waste has been hard to come by but cardboard is always easy to get.
I do fear making vole havens as cardboard layers are sometimes said to do, but I fear not the tick....
Liz, upon re-reading your post, I see you say you don't have a machine for cutting grass, just a GOF Scythe. I love the Scythe, mine is around 100 years old, I do not consider it old fashioned though, just retro and energy efficient.
I just talked to tim about the idea of making a piece of wood cover that rides four inches over the top of the current surface. And the frame of this would not touch any of the wood surface. Instead, it would get it's structural integrity from the legs (below). So air would be able to pass under this new surface. And on the underside will be written something about how the butcher block surface is for building the right kind of bacteria for butchering meat. That the upper table surface is designed to allow air to pass over the butcher surface when the butcher surface is not in use. And the table needs a paper thin layer of salt when the butcher surface is not in use.
Why is the kitchen moveable?
Is there something about it here?
I may well have missed it...if so please post a link
In my world, kitchens basically either stay where they are or get hitched onto something and driven back where they came from..
You have to admit that folks are using less baking soda these days , but toilet paper ? I think not . The shrinking box con job is the key to most diet packaging . Like "Lean Cuisines" . Same ingredients as "Hungry Man" just way less of it for more money .
another delicata fan =)
but theres a lot of variation in the delicatas i have tried, some are definitely better than others, but none were bad. some are small cuties and some are huge long things. the small cuties i grew many years ago was the best and sweetest, i do not remember exactly what the variation was or where it was from. then i grew them again and got instead the long thin type, still good though, but not what i was expecting.
my favorite squash to grow is definitely spaghetti squash. theres a whole lot of them out in the garden right now, so close to being ready, looking forward to harvesting them soon.
Leila Rich wrote:
The biggie for me is they're a mixta species and shouldn't cross pollinate with my other squash.
Avoiding crossing makes seed saving cucurbits a bit of a juggling act for me.
That was a biggie for me, too!
It means I can grow them anywhere I've got a spare patch of ground, assuming I keep all my seed - it's getting difficult to source seed so don't waste any!
I should have some to share if anyone wants some, though I think it's easy enough to get in the US. Any Europeans want any? Am I allowed to send any to you Leila? Or are the regulations too strict? Have Candystick Delicata, too. And some Oregon Homestead...
Here's a few links with more photos and info on them.
oh and of course one has the signature space at the bottom of his posts where you can write I am Frank from merry farm's etc.
I was thinking about this point before getting up today, and I saw it as if we all where in the auditorium, or shop, at Wheaton labs and there is a lot of round tables let say all for 8 to 10 people and every table is a thread, you move from to another looking at your interests and knowledges and stop to chat a long even in a very simple and light way, we don't always have to be so serious. Well seeing this vision, which depicts our virtual presence in the auditorium at Wheaton labs I like the idea that people here get to know who I am, what I do, and maybe you just comunicate in a different way. I pop up sometimes in threads wher ei see no one has answered if I know or i am curious about the subject I say something. it's because it's as if I saw someone alone at one of the tables in the auditorium and I would pop up I mean if you came to sit here it's not to be alone or meditate you want exchange idea's.
if you want to stay alone do it but you can't on Forum.
nothing it was just an update on my thoughts.
My roots are pretty much entirely English, Irish and Scottish;
with nary an 'exotic' ancestor to be found
Successful small businesspeople looking for freedom from rigid class and tax systems don't make much of a thrilling origin story!
While quite break-able, I'm rather fond of glass cookware. Anything from pyrex dishes to borosilicate chemistry glass has been proven quite useful. I'm not sure about its uses on the steaming front, but good glassware is a versatile tool.
The equinox is here, and where I live that means gales as opposed to just windy.
I can't remember it being this...obvious...in other places I've been;
does the equinox at your place make the weather more dramatic than usual?
Yeah these guys totally look like late summer sun. They're that shade of gold and creams and browns. I was pretty sure I was going after the mushrooms currently know as Prince until you brought up those Almond Agaricus a while back. Since then I haven't been so sure. That love of calcium bit is really good to know. Same as the portabellas huh? I always do seem to find them on edges near conifers for whatever reason. Coincidence?
Yip, it gets reeaally complicated. Nature's not in the business of simple, that's for sure!
John Saltveit wrote:Whip and tongue, bark, cleft grafting is done in late winter and early spring from dormant new branches.
Bud grafting or just called budding, happens in the summer (august and september mostly).
I've been wanting to learn grafting for ages, and basically just never got around to it.
I've always been told that bud grafting is a great 'beginner' technique.
That's not much use to you, as it'd be nearly a year until budding season comes around
If you're in an area with grafting workshops, I think it'd be well worth going;
there'd sure to be all sorts of learning opportunities aside from just grafting.
Jon La Foy wrote:can you actually cut a small branch off then root it?
As John says-it depends. What plant(s) are you thinking about growing from cuttings?
I haven't heard of people rooting cuttings from fruit trees, which are generally grown from pip/stone or grafted onto rootstock.
People here may have.
These are easy though:
Berries like blueberries, gooseberries, currants etc
Also: if you plant seeds from an apple, fruit from the new tree will probably be very different-that doesn't mean not good though.
this thread goes on about it at length!
Stones from fruit like peaches usually grow a new plant that's pretty much the same as it's 'parent'.